Nazarin kujera #117. Farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikaci - me yasa ba daidai ba ne da kuma yadda za'a iya ƙididdige shi

Wannan batu ne na har abada kuma tambaya ta har abada wacce daga cikin ma'aikatan ta fi kyau kuma wacce ta fi muni. Matsalar wannan tambaya ita ce, duk wanda ya tattauna shi ya san ainihin abin da ke aiki daidai da abin da ba ya aiki kuma me yasa mai aiki A ya fi mai aiki B, ko, akasin haka, mafi muni. Wani lokaci da ya wuce, mun ma fitar da jerin labarai kan yadda ake kimanta masu aiki yadda ya kamata, ingancin ayyukansu, kuma kuna son waɗannan labaran. Don kar in maimaita kaina, ina ba da shawarar sake karanta su. Suna bayyana cikakken tambayar menene sadarwar salula da abin da zai iya dogara da shi.

A cikin "Sofa Analytics" na yau zan so in yi tsokaci game da farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikatan Rasha da kuma dalilin da yasa ba haka ba ne ga kamfanoni daban-daban. Idan ka yi la'akari da bayanan kudi na masu aiki, ya zama cewa ARPU, wato, matsakaicin kudin shiga na kowane wata ga mai biyan kuɗi a Rasha, da ko ragi daidai ne ga kowane kamfani kuma ya kai kimanin 300 rubles. Daga farkon kwata na 2017, MTS yanke shawarar kada ya bayyana ARPU Manuniya, kazalika da matsakaicin adadin minti da biyan kuɗi (MOU), kazalika da yawan sauran sigogi, misali, fitar da biyan kuɗi tushe.Dalilin ana kiransa canjin kasuwancin, amma watanni shida kafin hakan, MTS ta ce wannan bayanan yana da mahimmanci kuma kamfanin zai buga su. Rikicin lokaci ne lokacin da kowane ma'aikaci ya zama ƙasa da gaskiya, Tele2 ya riga ya tafi daidai wannan hanya, yayin da zamu iya cewa Beeline da MegaFon suna riƙe, duka ma'aikatan biyu ba sa cire daidaitattun ƙididdiga daga rahotannin su. Dalilin da ya sa masu aiki suka fara buga bayanan banal, adadin su yana raguwa, masu kudi sun fara tsefe su ta yadda za a sami kyakkyawan ra'ayi. Yawan bayanan da ake samu a cikin jama'a, zai iya zama da wuya a lalata wannan ra'ayi.

A cikin wannan labarin zan yi ƙoƙari in ba ku ra'ayi game da menene farashin sadarwa ga ma'aikaci, amma ina so in yi muku gargaɗi nan da nan cewa za a rufe wasu batutuwa cikin manyan bugun jini, an ambaci wasu abubuwan. a wucewa, tunda a cikin daya ba zai yiwu a yi la'akari da su duka dalla-dalla ba.

Muhimmiyar warwarewa game da sharuɗɗan kasuwanci gabaɗaya

Don sauƙaƙa tattaunawar masu aiki, bari mu fara da ƴan zato waɗanda ba su da nisa sosai da gaskiya. Zan jera su cikin tsari:

  • Kowane ma'aikaci yana aiki a cikin mafi yawan yankuna, bi da bi, kusan iri ɗaya ne ta fuskar shiga cikin batutuwa daban-daban na Tarayyar Rasha;
  • Farashin wutar lantarki ga ma'aikata yana kan matsakaita iri ɗaya a duk faɗin ƙasar;
  • Kayan Wutar Lantarki a Greater Accra
  • Farashin aiki na kowane ma'aikaci kusan iri ɗaya ne, sun kasance. a daidai, yanayin ma'auni;
  • Kujerun hayar tashoshi na iya bambanta a cikin gida, amma matsakaicin farashin kowane tasha iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikaci;
  • Farashin tasha, duk da masu samar da kayayyaki iri-iri, iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikata kuma ya bambanta bisa ƙa'ida, wato 3G tashoshi suna biyan X ga duk ma'aikata, kuma tashoshin 4G sun ci Y, kuma waɗannan farashin su ne. haka.
Kamar yadda ake sauƙaƙawa da gangan, wannan ba ya ba mu hoto na gaske na duniya, a wani wuri ma'aikaci ya sami ingantacciyar hanyar samar da kayan aiki kuma ya sami kashi biyu cikin ɗari, wani ma'aikacin ya san yadda ake jan hankalin mutane akan kuɗi kaɗan da zaburarwa. su yi aiki. Amma ga da'irar, farashin su a cikin wuraren da aka lissafa ƙari ko ragi iri ɗaya ne, ana samun riba a wani wuri ta hanyar aiki mafi muni a wasu fannoni. Ga labarinmu, waɗannan lokutan ba su da mahimmanci, za ku iya koyan su da kanku.

Me yasa tashoshin 2G ba su da mahimmanci kuma me yasa masu aiki ke son wayoyin hannu

Kowane ma'aikaci yana ƙididdige ma'auni na kowane tashar tushe, wannan shine, idan kuna so, tsarin tattalin arziki mafi sauƙi wanda ke nuna yadda irin wannan tashar tushe ke da fa'ida da riba. Da kyau, kowane tashar tashar ya kamata ya zama mai riba, alal misali, wannan ita ce hanyar da masu aiki a Amurka ke bi, kuma ba sa zuwa yankunan da ba a taɓa samun buƙatun sabis na su ba. A matsayinka na mai mulki, duk abin da ba shi da kyau a kan tituna a cikin Amurka tare da sadarwa, kuma ana bambanta wuraren shakatawa iri ɗaya ta hanyar kusan cikakkiyar rashin sadarwa, ban da tsibirin yawon shakatawa tare da otal-otal, inda ma'auni na tashar tushe guda ɗaya. yana da kyau koyaushe, yayin da mutane ke amfani da shi zuwa cikakken shirin. A kasar Rasha ma’aikatan da ke aiki ba sa son kafa tashoshi a kan manyan titunan gwamnatin tarayya, saboda ba su da alaka da wutar lantarki, kuma adadin motocin da ke wucewa ya sa hakan bai sa an kafa ko tasha daya na tsawon dubun-duba na titin ba. A lokacin da jihar ta tilastawa ma’aikatan wajen warware wannan matsala, sai suka samu mafita wajen gina irin wadannan tashoshi tare da gudanar da ayyukansu na hadin gwiwa, inda aka raba dukkan kudaden da aka kashe a hannun jari daidai.

Abin takaici ga masu aiki, tashoshin tushe ba daidai suke da juna ba, BS a cikin ma'aunin 2G yana kawo mafi ƙarancin kudin shiga, tashoshin 3G suna ba da kaɗan kaɗan, kuma tashoshin 4G suna ba da matsakaicin kudin shiga. A bayyane yake cewa farashin su ya bambanta sosai, amma fa'idodin da tashoshin 4G suke kawowa a bayyane yake, wannan shine yanki mafi kiba a kasuwa.

Kuna iya kwatanta wannan daga akasin haka, dubi ARPU na masu biyan kuɗi na ɓangaren tattalin arziki, a cikin 2015 ya kasance 120 rubles. A duk masu aiki, kusan 40-45% na masu biyan kuɗi a yau suna amfani da sabis na murya kawai, suna kashe watsa bayanai. Har ila yau, ba lallai ba ne su yi amfani da wayoyi masu amfani da turawa, akwai kuma wadanda suka sayi na'urorin Galaxy ko iPhone na zamani, amma suna kashe bayanan da ba dole ba ne, tun da suna amfani da Wi-Fi ko kuma kawai suna kiran wayoyinsu.

Don Allah a lura cewa a cikin hoton kashi 44% na masu biyan kuɗi suna kawo kashi 7% na kudaden shiga na kamfani, waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ba su da riba sosai. Tabbas, masu amfani da wannan damar za su iya amfani da kowace tashar tashar jiragen ruwa, ba za a iya cewa suna amfani da tashoshi 2G kawai ba, duk da cewa hakan ya shafi masu amfani da na'urorin turawa (kashi 94% na dukkan maballin wayar 2G ne). Saboda waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ne tashoshin tushe na 2G ba su bace a Rasha ba, kuma ana tilasta wa masu aiki su ci gaba da wanzuwa, dalili na biyu shine mafita na M2M, waɗanda kuma ke mai da hankali kan hanyoyin sadarwar 2G. A cikin Amurka, AT&T ya gargadi masu biyan kuɗi tare da na'urorin 2G a cikin 2016 cewa ba za su iya amfani da su ba daga Disamba 31, 2016. Kuma tun daga Janairu 2017, waɗannan na'urori ba sa aiki akan hanyar sadarwar AT&T.

Me yasa ya yiwu a kashe irin wannan hanyar sadarwa a cikin Amurka, yayin da masu aiki na Rasha ba sa gaggawar yin hakan? Dalilin shi ne banal kuma cikin sauƙin bayani: ma'aikaci na farko da ya kashe tashoshin 2G zai haifar da kwararar hanyar biyan kuɗi zuwa ga masu fafatawa, koda kuwa hakan bai yi tasiri sosai kan kuɗin shiga ba a halin yanzu. Amma kowa ya fahimci cewa ba dade ko ba dade masu amfani da 2G za su yi amfani da Intanet ta wayar hannu da sauran fa'idodin wayewa. Don haka, ana riƙe su kuma ana tura su ta hanyar da ta dace. Wannan motsi ne na hankali.

Don Allah a lura cewa kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi na yau ba su damu da tashoshin da za su yi amfani da su ba, kasuwannin gargajiya, wanda ke ba da kashi 43% na kudaden shiga na ma'aikata, yana amfani da zirga-zirgar fasaha, wato, wayoyin su na saukar da hasashen yanayi, suna amfani da sauri. manzanni da sabis na yanar gizo a cikin iyakataccen adadi. Ana siffanta su da kusan amfani da waɗannan sabis ɗin. Gudun haɗin haɗin don irin waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi, da sauran sigogi ba su taka rawa ba, ainihin gaskiyar samun haɗin gwiwa yana da mahimmanci. A ƙarshe, har yanzu muna da kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi, wanda ke kawo rabin kuɗin shiga, kuma masu aiki suna jagorantar su, suna ƙoƙarin juya nau'ikan biyu na farko na masu biyan kuɗi zuwa irin waɗannan masu amfani a hanya. Kuma wannan tsari yana tafiya sannu a hankali.

Kuma yanzu bari mu kalli tashoshi nawa kowanne daga cikin ma'aikatan ke da shi, daga nan bayanan Roskomnadzor a ƙarshen 2016.

Kun riga kun san cewa farashin gyara, da farashin tashoshin tushe na ma'auni daban-daban, sun bambanta. Don haka, yana da kyau a ga tashoshin da kowane kamfani ke da shi kuma a nawa ne, ga jadawali masu dacewa.

Misali, zamu iya kwatanta Tele2 da Beeline, ya bayyana cewa a cikin ma'aunin 4G Tele2 yana da tashoshi 11,000 akan tashoshin 18,600 na Beeline. Yana da sauƙi a lissafta cewa farashin kula da tashoshin 4G a Beeline ya fi girma, tunda akwai kawai ƙari. A wasu ma'aunai, adadin tashoshi na waɗannan ma'aikatan guda biyu sun yi kama da juna. Idan muka yi la'akari da farashin sabis na waɗannan ma'aikata guda biyu, to, Beeline yana kashe ƙarin kuɗi akan hanyar sadarwarsa, wannan ba kawai siyan ƙarin tashoshi ba ne, har ma da ƙarin farashin wutar lantarki a kowane tashar, ƙarin sa'o'i na lokaci don kulawa da shigarwa. Farashin hanyar sadarwar da ke kunshe da adadin tashoshi masu yawa ya fi girma, watau ma'aikaci yana haifar da ƙarin farashi. Ana yin duk wannan tare da manufa guda ɗaya: don ƙara yuwuwar cewa a maki biyu (gida da aiki) za ku sami kyakkyawar alaƙa kuma za ku zaɓi ma'aikacin da ya ba da mafi kyawun ɗaukar hoto da ingancin sabis.

MegaFon yana da mafi yawan adadin tashoshin tushe a Rasha, MTS iri ɗaya ya fi ƙanƙanta, kuma Tele2 da Beeline suna bayan tashoshi kusan 75,000. Yana da sauƙi a ƙididdige cewa farashin kiyaye hanyar sadarwa don MegaFon ya fi girma fiye da na waɗannan masu aiki guda biyu. Amma adadin masu biyan kuɗi na "nauyi", waɗanda ke amfani da tsare-tsare masu tsada don canja wurin bayanai masu yawa, kuma sun fi girma. A cikin MTS guda ɗaya, suna ƙoƙarin kiyaye ƙayyadaddun ma'auni, wato, gina hanyar sadarwa da kiyaye farashi a matakin da ya dace, fiye da na Beeline da Tele2, amma ƙasa da na MegaFon.

A cikin wannan wasan, kowane ma'aikaci yana zaɓar hanyarsa, alal misali, MegaFon yana ƙoƙarin gina babbar hanyar sadarwa, wato, don haɓaka damarsa na jawo mafi yawan masu biyan kuɗi waɗanda za su buƙaci ƙimar canja wurin bayanai. p> Da fatan za a lura cewa matsakaicin ARPU na 300 rubles ya gaya mana cewa gasa a kasuwa shine matsakaicin kuma duk masu aiki suna iyakance ta farashin sabis daga maƙwabtansu a kasuwa. Don haka, MegaFon guda ɗaya yana karɓar kuɗi kaɗan daga masu biyan kuɗi, tunda farashin kula da hanyar sadarwa ya fi girma. A ka'idar, wannan yana nufin cewa masu biyan kuɗi suna samun saurin sauri, mafi kyawun hanyar sadarwa, amma ko dai ba su sani ba game da shi ko kuma ba su la'akari da shi da mahimmanci, saboda suna kwatanta farashi tare da sauran masu aiki kuma suna farin ciki cewa sabis ɗin yana da rahusa, ba tare da sanin hakan ba. yayi daidai da farashin ma'aikacin matakin. Bambance-bambancen kasuwancin sadarwar Rasha shine cewa irin waɗannan ma'aikata kamar Tele2 da Beeline suna samun nasara a hukumance, suna saka hannun jari kaɗan a cikin ababen more rayuwa na hanyoyin sadarwar su, amma suna haɓaka farashin tallace-tallace da siyar da cibiyoyin sadarwar da suka fi girma da ɗaukar hoto, da kuma tare da ƙananan saurin shiga. don kudi mai yawa.

Kamar yadda kuke gani, akwai iyakoki guda biyu don masu aiki. Daga sama, wannan shine farashin sabis a kasuwa, wanda ba zai iya bambanta sau da yawa ko ma da kashi goma cikin dari, in ba haka ba masu biyan kuɗi za su fara gudu zuwa wasu masu aiki. A ƙasa akwai kuɗin kula da hanyar sadarwar, wanda kai tsaye ya dogara da adadin tashoshin tushe na zamani, da kuma adadin yawan tashoshin tushe (ba a ma maganar hanyoyin sadarwar kashin baya tsakanin biranen).

Ƙara girman cibiyar sadarwa koyaushe yana yin mummunan tasiri ga ma'auni na tashar tushe ɗaya, ana rarraba kira da watsa bayanai akan adadin tashoshi masu yawa. A gefe guda, wannan yana nufin kai tsaye cewa mai biyan kuɗi ya sami ingantaccen kewayon cibiyar sadarwa da iya aiki. Idan kuwa ko ta yaya zai iya tantance abu na farko, to kasancewar sauran mutane a cikin hanyar sadarwar bai dame shi ba, yana sha’awar wace irin alaka ce kawai yake da shi. Mu, a matsayinmu na masu amfani, muna kimanta ma'aikata bisa ga ra'ayinmu na zahiri, kuma muna la'akari da farashin sabis a matsayin mafi mahimmancin ma'auni, saboda wasu dalilai suna daidaita duk ma'aikata zuwa ma'auni na kowa kuma muna imani cewa su ɗaya ne. Amma wannan ba gaskiya bane ko kadan. Lokacin samun kwatankwacin ƙima, kuna buƙatar sanin bambance-bambance a cikin girman cibiyar sadarwa, wanda kuma yana shafar ƙwarewar mai amfani da ku. A cikin wannan labarin, na yi ƙoƙari in bayyana yadda aka samar da farashi ga ma'aikacin kuma dalilin da yasa kowannensu yana da dabarun daban. Wanda ke matse duk wani abu mai yuwuwa daga ƙaramin hanyar sadarwa, kuma wanda ke ƙoƙarin ba da haɗin kai a matsakaicin adadin wurare.

Nazarin kujera #117. Farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikaci - me yasa ba daidai ba ne da kuma yadda za'a iya ƙididdige shi

Wannan batu ne na har abada kuma tambaya ta har abada wacce daga cikin ma'aikatan ta fi kyau kuma wacce ta fi muni. Matsalar wannan tambaya ita ce, duk wanda ya tattauna shi ya san ainihin abin da ke aiki daidai da abin da ba ya aiki kuma me yasa mai aiki A ya fi mai aiki B, ko, akasin haka, mafi muni. Wani lokaci da ya wuce, mun ma fitar da jerin labarai kan yadda ake kimanta masu aiki yadda ya kamata, ingancin ayyukansu, kuma kuna son waɗannan labaran. Don kar in maimaita kaina, ina ba da shawarar sake karanta su. Suna bayyana cikakken tambayar menene sadarwar salula da abin da zai iya dogara da shi.

A cikin "Sofa Analytics" na yau zan so in yi tsokaci game da farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikatan Rasha da kuma dalilin da yasa ba haka ba ne ga kamfanoni daban-daban. Idan ka yi la'akari da bayanan kudi na masu aiki, ya zama cewa ARPU, wato, matsakaicin kudin shiga na kowane wata ga mai biyan kuɗi a Rasha, da ko ragi daidai ne ga kowane kamfani kuma ya kai kimanin 300 rubles. Daga farkon kwata na 2017, MTS yanke shawarar kada ya bayyana ARPU Manuniya, kazalika da matsakaicin adadin minti da biyan kuɗi (MOU), kazalika da yawan sauran sigogi, misali, fitar da biyan kuɗi tushe.Dalilin ana kiransa canjin kasuwancin, amma watanni shida kafin hakan, MTS ta ce wannan bayanan yana da mahimmanci kuma kamfanin zai buga su. Rikicin lokaci ne lokacin da kowane ma'aikaci ya zama ƙasa da gaskiya, Tele2 ya riga ya tafi daidai wannan hanya, yayin da zamu iya cewa Beeline da MegaFon suna riƙe, duka ma'aikatan biyu ba sa cire daidaitattun ƙididdiga daga rahotannin su. Dalilin da ya sa masu aiki suka fara buga bayanan banal, adadin su yana raguwa, masu kudi sun fara tsefe su ta yadda za a sami kyakkyawan ra'ayi. Yawan bayanan da ake samu a cikin jama'a, zai iya zama da wuya a lalata wannan ra'ayi.

A cikin wannan labarin zan yi ƙoƙari in ba ku ra'ayi game da menene farashin sadarwa ga ma'aikaci, amma ina so in yi muku gargaɗi nan da nan cewa za a rufe wasu batutuwa cikin manyan bugun jini, an ambaci wasu abubuwan. a wucewa, tunda a cikin daya ba zai yiwu a yi la'akari da su duka dalla-dalla ba.

Muhimmiyar warwarewa game da sharuɗɗan kasuwanci gabaɗaya

Don sauƙaƙa tattaunawar masu aiki, bari mu fara da ƴan zato waɗanda ba su da nisa sosai da gaskiya. Zan jera su cikin tsari:

  • Kowane ma'aikaci yana aiki a cikin mafi yawan yankuna, bi da bi, kusan iri ɗaya ne ta fuskar shiga cikin batutuwa daban-daban na Tarayyar Rasha;
  • Farashin wutar lantarki ga ma'aikata yana kan matsakaita iri ɗaya a duk faɗin ƙasar;
  • Kayan Wutar Lantarki a Greater Accra
  • Farashin aiki na kowane ma'aikaci kusan iri ɗaya ne, sun kasance. a daidai, yanayin ma'auni;
  • Kujerun hayar tashoshi na iya bambanta a cikin gida, amma matsakaicin farashin kowane tasha iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikaci;
  • Farashin tasha, duk da masu samar da kayayyaki iri-iri, iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikata kuma ya bambanta bisa ƙa'ida, wato 3G tashoshi suna biyan X ga duk ma'aikata, kuma tashoshin 4G sun ci Y, kuma waɗannan farashin su ne. haka.
Kamar yadda ake sauƙaƙawa da gangan, wannan ba ya ba mu hoto na gaske na duniya, a wani wuri ma'aikaci ya sami ingantacciyar hanyar samar da kayan aiki kuma ya sami kashi biyu cikin ɗari, wani ma'aikacin ya san yadda ake jan hankalin mutane akan kuɗi kaɗan da zaburarwa. su yi aiki. Amma ga da'irar, farashin su a cikin wuraren da aka lissafa ƙari ko ragi iri ɗaya ne, ana samun riba a wani wuri ta hanyar aiki mafi muni a wasu fannoni. Ga labarinmu, waɗannan lokutan ba su da mahimmanci, za ku iya koyan su da kanku.

Me yasa tashoshin 2G ba su da mahimmanci kuma me yasa masu aiki ke son wayoyin hannu

Kowane ma'aikaci yana ƙididdige ma'auni na kowane tashar tushe, wannan shine, idan kuna so, tsarin tattalin arziki mafi sauƙi wanda ke nuna yadda irin wannan tashar tushe ke da fa'ida da riba. Da kyau, kowane tashar tashar ya kamata ya zama mai riba, alal misali, wannan ita ce hanyar da masu aiki a Amurka ke bi, kuma ba sa zuwa yankunan da ba a taɓa samun buƙatun sabis na su ba. A matsayinka na mai mulki, duk abin da ba shi da kyau a kan tituna a cikin Amurka tare da sadarwa, kuma ana bambanta wuraren shakatawa iri ɗaya ta hanyar kusan cikakkiyar rashin sadarwa, ban da tsibirin yawon shakatawa tare da otal-otal, inda ma'auni na tashar tushe guda ɗaya. yana da kyau koyaushe, yayin da mutane ke amfani da shi zuwa cikakken shirin. A kasar Rasha ma’aikatan da ke aiki ba sa son kafa tashoshi a kan manyan titunan gwamnatin tarayya, saboda ba su da alaka da wutar lantarki, kuma adadin motocin da ke wucewa ya sa hakan bai sa an kafa ko tasha daya na tsawon dubun-duba na titin ba. A lokacin da jihar ta tilastawa ma’aikatan wajen warware wannan matsala, sai suka samu mafita wajen gina irin wadannan tashoshi tare da gudanar da ayyukansu na hadin gwiwa, inda aka raba dukkan kudaden da aka kashe a hannun jari daidai.

Abin takaici ga masu aiki, tashoshin tushe ba daidai suke da juna ba, BS a cikin ma'aunin 2G yana kawo mafi ƙarancin kudin shiga, tashoshin 3G suna ba da kaɗan kaɗan, kuma tashoshin 4G suna ba da matsakaicin kudin shiga. A bayyane yake cewa farashin su ya bambanta sosai, amma fa'idodin da tashoshin 4G suke kawowa a bayyane yake, wannan shine yanki mafi kiba a kasuwa.

Kuna iya kwatanta wannan daga akasin haka, dubi ARPU na masu biyan kuɗi na ɓangaren tattalin arziki, a cikin 2015 ya kasance 120 rubles. Kusan kashi 40-45% na duk masu biyan kuɗi na masu aiki a yau suna amfani da sabis na murya kawai, ana kashe watsa bayanai. Har ila yau, ba lallai ba ne su yi amfani da wayoyi masu amfani da turawa, akwai kuma wadanda suka sayi na'urorin Galaxy ko iPhone na zamani, amma suna kashe bayanan da ba dole ba ne, tun da suna amfani da Wi-Fi ko kuma kawai suna kiran wayoyinsu.

Don Allah a lura cewa a cikin hoton kashi 44% na masu biyan kuɗi suna kawo kashi 7% na kudaden shiga na kamfani, waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ba su da riba sosai. Tabbas, masu amfani da wannan damar za su iya amfani da kowace tashar tashar jiragen ruwa, ba za a iya cewa suna amfani da tashoshi 2G kawai ba, duk da cewa hakan ya shafi masu amfani da na'urorin turawa (kashi 94% na dukkan maballin wayar 2G ne). Saboda waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ne tashoshin tushe na 2G ba su bace a Rasha ba, kuma ana tilasta wa masu aiki su ci gaba da wanzuwa, dalili na biyu shine mafita na M2M, waɗanda kuma ke mai da hankali kan hanyoyin sadarwar 2G. A cikin Amurka, AT&T ya gargadi masu biyan kuɗi tare da na'urorin 2G a cikin 2016 cewa ba za su iya amfani da su ba daga Disamba 31, 2016. Kuma tun daga Janairu 2017, waɗannan na'urori ba sa aiki akan hanyar sadarwar AT&T.

Me yasa ya yiwu a kashe irin wannan hanyar sadarwa a cikin Amurka, yayin da masu aiki na Rasha ba sa gaggawar yin hakan? Dalilin shi ne banal kuma cikin sauƙin bayani: ma'aikaci na farko da ya kashe tashoshin 2G zai haifar da kwararar hanyar biyan kuɗi zuwa ga masu fafatawa, koda kuwa hakan bai yi tasiri sosai kan kuɗin shiga ba a halin yanzu. Amma kowa ya fahimci cewa ba dade ko ba dade masu amfani da 2G za su yi amfani da Intanet ta wayar hannu da sauran fa'idodin wayewa. Don haka, ana riƙe su kuma ana tura su ta hanyar da ta dace. Wannan motsi ne na hankali.

Don Allah a lura cewa kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi na yau ba kome ba ko waɗanne tashoshi ne suke yi musu hidima, kasuwar gargajiya, wacce ke ba da kashi 43% na kuɗin shiga na ma'aikata, suna amfani da zirga-zirgar fasaha, wato, wayoyinsu na saukar da hasashen yanayi. , suna amfani da saƙon gaggawa da sabis na yanar gizo a cikin iyakataccen adadi. Ana siffanta su da kusan amfani da waɗannan sabis ɗin. Gudun haɗin haɗin don irin waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi, da sauran sigogi ba su taka rawa ba, ainihin gaskiyar samun haɗin gwiwa yana da mahimmanci. A ƙarshe, har yanzu muna da kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi, wanda ke kawo rabin kuɗin shiga, kuma masu aiki suna jagorantar su, suna ƙoƙarin juya nau'ikan biyu na farko na masu biyan kuɗi zuwa irin waɗannan masu amfani a hanya. Kuma wannan tsari yana tafiya sannu a hankali.

Kuma yanzu bari mu kalli tashoshi nawa kowanne daga cikin ma'aikatan ke da shi, daga nan bayanan Roskomnadzor a ƙarshen 2016.

Kun riga kun san cewa farashin gyara, da farashin tashoshin tushe na ma'auni daban-daban, sun bambanta. Don haka, yana da kyau a ga tashoshin da kowane kamfani ke da shi kuma a nawa ne, ga jadawali masu dacewa.

Misali, zamu iya kwatanta Tele2 da Beeline, ya bayyana cewa a cikin ma'aunin 4G Tele2 yana da tashoshi 11,000 akan tashoshin 18,600 na Beeline. Yana da sauƙi a lissafta cewa farashin kula da tashoshin 4G a Beeline ya fi girma, tunda akwai kawai ƙari. A wasu ma'aunai, adadin tashoshi na waɗannan ma'aikatan guda biyu sun yi kama da juna. Idan muka yi la'akari da farashin sabis na waɗannan ma'aikata guda biyu, to, Beeline yana kashe ƙarin kuɗi akan hanyar sadarwarsa, wannan ba kawai siyan ƙarin tashoshi ba ne, har ma da ƙarin farashin wutar lantarki a kowane tashar, ƙarin sa'o'i na lokaci don kulawa da shigarwa. Farashin hanyar sadarwar da ke kunshe da adadin tashoshi masu yawa ya fi girma, watau ma'aikaci yana haifar da ƙarin farashi. Ana yin duk wannan tare da manufa guda ɗaya: don ƙara yuwuwar cewa a maki biyu (gida da aiki) za ku sami kyakkyawar alaƙa kuma za ku zaɓi ma'aikacin da ya ba da mafi kyawun ɗaukar hoto da ingancin sabis.

MegaFon yana da mafi yawan adadin tashoshin tushe a Rasha, MTS iri ɗaya ya fi ƙanƙanta, kuma Tele2 da Beeline suna bayan tashoshi kusan 75,000. Yana da sauƙi a ƙididdige cewa farashin kiyaye hanyar sadarwa don MegaFon ya fi girma fiye da na waɗannan masu aiki guda biyu. Amma adadin masu biyan kuɗi na "nauyi", waɗanda ke amfani da tsare-tsare masu tsada don canja wurin bayanai masu yawa, kuma sun fi girma. A cikin MTS guda ɗaya, suna ƙoƙarin kiyaye ƙayyadaddun ma'auni, wato, gina hanyar sadarwa da kiyaye farashi a matakin da ya dace, fiye da na Beeline da Tele2, amma ƙasa da na MegaFon.

A cikin wannan wasan, kowane ma'aikaci yana zaɓar hanyarsa, alal misali, MegaFon yana ƙoƙarin gina babbar hanyar sadarwa, wato, don haɓaka damarsa na jawo mafi yawan masu biyan kuɗi waɗanda za su buƙaci ƙimar canja wurin bayanai. p> Da fatan za a lura cewa matsakaicin ARPU na 300 rubles ya gaya mana cewa gasa a kasuwa shine matsakaicin kuma duk masu aiki suna iyakance ta farashin sabis daga maƙwabtansu a kasuwa. Don haka, MegaFon guda ɗaya yana karɓar kuɗi kaɗan daga masu biyan kuɗi, tunda farashin kula da hanyar sadarwa ya fi girma. A ka'idar, wannan yana nufin cewa masu biyan kuɗi suna samun saurin sauri, mafi kyawun hanyar sadarwa, amma ko dai ba su sani ba game da shi ko kuma ba su la'akari da shi da mahimmanci, saboda suna kwatanta farashi tare da sauran masu aiki kuma suna farin ciki cewa sabis ɗin yana da rahusa, ba tare da sanin hakan ba. yayi daidai da farashin ma'aikacin matakin. Bambance-bambancen kasuwancin sadarwar Rasha shine cewa irin waɗannan ma'aikata kamar Tele2 da Beeline suna samun nasara a hukumance, suna saka hannun jari kaɗan a cikin ababen more rayuwa na hanyoyin sadarwar su, amma suna haɓaka farashin tallace-tallace da siyar da cibiyoyin sadarwar da suka fi girma da ɗaukar hoto, da kuma tare da ƙananan saurin shiga. don kudi mai yawa.

Kamar yadda kuke gani, akwai iyakoki guda biyu don masu aiki. Daga sama, wannan shine farashin sabis a kasuwa, wanda ba zai iya bambanta sau da yawa ko ma kashi goma cikin dari, in ba haka ba masu biyan kuɗi za su fara gudu zuwa wasu masu aiki. A ƙasa akwai kuɗin kula da hanyar sadarwar, wanda kai tsaye ya dogara da adadin tashoshin tushe na zamani, da kuma adadin yawan tashoshin tushe (ba a ma maganar hanyoyin sadarwar kashin baya tsakanin biranen).

Ƙara girman cibiyar sadarwa koyaushe yana yin mummunan tasiri ga ma'auni na tashar tushe ɗaya, ana rarraba kira da watsa bayanai akan adadin tashoshi masu yawa. A gefe guda, wannan yana nufin kai tsaye cewa mai biyan kuɗi yana karɓar mafi kyawun kewayon cibiyar sadarwa da iya aiki. Idan kuwa ko ta yaya zai iya tantance abu na farko, to kasancewar sauran mutane a cikin hanyar sadarwar bai dame shi ba, yana sha’awar wace irin alaka ce kawai yake da shi. Mu, a matsayinmu na masu amfani, muna kimanta ma'aikata bisa ga ra'ayinmu na zahiri, kuma muna la'akari da farashin sabis a matsayin mafi mahimmancin ma'auni, saboda wasu dalilai suna daidaita duk ma'aikata zuwa ma'auni na kowa kuma muna imani cewa su ɗaya ne. Amma wannan ba gaskiya bane ko kadan. Lokacin samun kwatankwacin ƙima, kuna buƙatar sanin bambance-bambance a cikin girman cibiyar sadarwa, wanda kuma yana shafar ƙwarewar mai amfani da ku. A cikin wannan labarin, na yi ƙoƙari in bayyana yadda aka samar da farashi ga ma'aikacin kuma dalilin da yasa kowannensu yana da dabarun daban. Wanda ke matse duk wani abu mai yuwuwa daga ƙaramin hanyar sadarwa, kuma wanda ke ƙoƙarin ba da haɗin kai a matsakaicin adadin wurare.

Nazarin kujera #117. Farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikaci - me yasa ba daidai ba ne da kuma yadda za'a iya ƙididdige shi

Wannan batu ne na har abada kuma tambaya ta har abada wacce daga cikin ma'aikatan ta fi kyau kuma wacce ta fi muni. Matsalar wannan tambaya ita ce, duk wanda ya tattauna shi ya san ainihin abin da ke aiki daidai da abin da ba ya aiki kuma me yasa mai aiki A ya fi mai aiki B, ko, akasin haka, mafi muni. Wani lokaci da ya wuce, mun ma fitar da jerin labarai kan yadda ake kimanta masu aiki yadda ya kamata, ingancin ayyukansu, kuma kuna son waɗannan labaran. Don kar in maimaita kaina, ina ba da shawarar sake karanta su. Suna bayyana cikakken tambayar menene sadarwar salula da abin da zai iya dogara da shi.

A cikin "Sofa Analytics" na yau zan so in yi tsokaci game da farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikatan Rasha da kuma dalilin da yasa ba haka ba ne ga kamfanoni daban-daban. Idan ka yi la'akari da bayanan kudi na masu aiki, ya zama cewa ARPU, wato, matsakaicin kudin shiga na kowane wata ga mai biyan kuɗi a Rasha, da ko ragi daidai ne ga kowane kamfani kuma ya kai kimanin 300 rubles. Daga farkon kwata na 2017, MTS yanke shawarar kada ya bayyana ARPU Manuniya, kazalika da matsakaicin adadin minti da biyan kuɗi (MOU), kazalika da yawan sauran sigogi, misali, fitar da biyan kuɗi tushe.Dalilin ana kiransa canjin kasuwancin, amma watanni shida kafin hakan, MTS ta ce wannan bayanan yana da mahimmanci kuma kamfanin zai buga su. Rikicin lokaci ne lokacin da kowane ma'aikaci ya zama ƙasa da gaskiya, Tele2 ya riga ya tafi daidai wannan hanya, yayin da zamu iya cewa Beeline da MegaFon suna riƙe, duka ma'aikatan biyu ba sa cire daidaitattun ƙididdiga daga rahotannin su. Dalilin da ya sa masu aiki suka fara buga bayanan banal, adadin su yana raguwa, masu kudi sun fara tsefe su ta yadda za a sami kyakkyawan ra'ayi. Yawan bayanan da ake samu a cikin jama'a, zai iya zama da wuya a lalata wannan ra'ayi.

A cikin wannan labarin zan yi ƙoƙari in ba ku ra'ayi game da menene farashin sadarwa ga ma'aikaci, amma ina so in yi muku gargaɗi nan da nan cewa za a rufe wasu batutuwa cikin manyan bugun jini, an ambaci wasu abubuwan. a wucewa, tunda a cikin daya ba zai yiwu a yi la'akari da su duka dalla-dalla ba.

Muhimmiyar warwarewa game da sharuɗɗan kasuwanci gabaɗaya

Don sauƙaƙa tattaunawar masu aiki, bari mu fara da ƴan zato waɗanda ba su da nisa sosai da gaskiya. Zan jera su cikin tsari:

  • Kowane ma'aikaci yana aiki a cikin mafi yawan yankuna, bi da bi, kusan iri ɗaya ne ta fuskar shiga cikin batutuwa daban-daban na Tarayyar Rasha;
  • Farashin wutar lantarki ga ma'aikata yana kan matsakaita iri ɗaya a duk faɗin ƙasar;
  • Kayan Wutar Lantarki a Greater Accra
  • Farashin aiki na kowane ma'aikaci kusan iri ɗaya ne, sun kasance. a daidai, yanayin ma'auni;
  • Kujerun hayar tashoshi na iya bambanta a cikin gida, amma matsakaicin farashin kowane tasha iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikaci;
  • Farashin tasha, duk da masu samar da kayayyaki iri-iri, iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikata kuma ya bambanta bisa ƙa'ida, wato 3G tashoshi suna biyan X ga duk ma'aikata, kuma tashoshin 4G sun ci Y, kuma waɗannan farashin su ne. haka.
Kamar yadda ake sauƙaƙawa da gangan, wannan ba ya ba mu hoto na gaske na duniya, a wani wuri ma'aikaci ya sami ingantacciyar hanyar samar da kayan aiki kuma ya sami kashi biyu cikin ɗari, wani ma'aikacin ya san yadda ake jan hankalin mutane akan kuɗi kaɗan da zaburarwa. su yi aiki. Amma ga da'irar, farashin su a cikin wuraren da aka lissafa ƙari ko ragi iri ɗaya ne, ana samun riba a wani wuri ta hanyar aiki mafi muni a wasu fannoni. Ga labarinmu, waɗannan lokutan ba su da mahimmanci, za ku iya koyan su da kanku.

Me yasa tashoshin 2G ba su da mahimmanci kuma me yasa masu aiki ke son wayoyin hannu

Kowane ma'aikaci yana ƙididdige ma'auni na kowane tashar tushe, wannan shine, idan kuna so, tsarin tattalin arziki mafi sauƙi wanda ke nuna yadda irin wannan tashar tushe ke da fa'ida da riba. Da kyau, kowane tashar tashar ya kamata ya zama mai riba, alal misali, wannan ita ce hanyar da masu aiki a Amurka ke bi, kuma ba sa zuwa yankunan da ba a taɓa samun buƙatun sabis na su ba. A matsayinka na mai mulki, duk abin da ba shi da kyau a kan tituna a cikin Amurka tare da sadarwa, kuma ana bambanta wuraren shakatawa iri ɗaya ta hanyar kusan cikakkiyar rashin sadarwa, ban da tsibirin yawon shakatawa tare da otal-otal, inda ma'auni na tashar tushe guda ɗaya. yana da kyau koyaushe, yayin da mutane ke amfani da shi zuwa cikakken shirin. A kasar Rasha ma’aikatan da ke aiki ba sa son kafa tashoshi a kan manyan titunan gwamnatin tarayya, saboda ba su da alaka da wutar lantarki, kuma adadin motocin da ke wucewa ya sa hakan bai sa an kafa ko tasha daya na tsawon dubun-duba na titin ba. A lokacin da jihar ta tilastawa ma’aikatan wajen warware wannan matsala, sai suka samu mafita wajen gina irin wadannan tashoshi tare da gudanar da ayyukansu na hadin gwiwa, inda aka raba dukkan kudaden da aka kashe a hannun jari daidai.

Abin takaici ga masu aiki, tashoshin tushe ba daidai suke da juna ba, BS a cikin ma'aunin 2G yana kawo mafi ƙarancin kudin shiga, tashoshin 3G suna ba da kaɗan kaɗan, kuma tashoshin 4G suna ba da matsakaicin kudin shiga. A bayyane yake cewa farashin su ya bambanta sosai, amma fa'idodin da tashoshin 4G suke kawowa a bayyane yake, wannan shine yanki mafi kiba a kasuwa.

Kuna iya kwatanta wannan daga akasin haka, dubi ARPU na masu biyan kuɗi na ɓangaren tattalin arziki, a cikin 2015 ya kasance 120 rubles. A duk masu aiki, kusan kashi 40-45% na masu biyan kuɗi a yau suna amfani da sabis na murya kawai, suna kashe watsa bayanai. Har ila yau, ba lallai ba ne su yi amfani da wayoyi masu amfani da turawa, akwai kuma wadanda suka sayi na'urorin Galaxy ko iPhone na zamani, amma suna kashe bayanan da ba dole ba ne, tun da suna amfani da Wi-Fi ko kuma kawai suna kiran wayoyinsu.

Don Allah a lura cewa a cikin hoton kashi 44% na masu biyan kuɗi suna kawo kashi 7% na kudaden shiga na kamfani, waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ba su da riba sosai. Tabbas, masu amfani da wannan damar za su iya amfani da kowace tashar tashar jiragen ruwa, ba za a iya cewa suna amfani da tashoshi 2G kawai ba, duk da cewa hakan ya shafi masu amfani da na'urorin turawa (kashi 94% na dukkan maballin wayar 2G ne). Saboda waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ne tashoshin tushe na 2G ba su bace a Rasha ba, kuma ana tilasta wa masu aiki su ci gaba da wanzuwa, dalili na biyu shine mafita na M2M, waɗanda kuma ke mai da hankali kan hanyoyin sadarwar 2G. A cikin Amurka, AT&T ya gargadi masu biyan kuɗi tare da na'urorin 2G a cikin 2016 cewa ba za su iya amfani da su ba daga Disamba 31, 2016. Kuma tun daga Janairu 2017, waɗannan na'urori ba sa aiki akan hanyar sadarwar AT&T.

Me yasa ya yiwu a kashe irin wannan hanyar sadarwa a cikin Amurka, yayin da masu aiki na Rasha ba sa gaggawar yin hakan? Dalilin shi ne banal kuma cikin sauƙin bayani: ma'aikaci na farko da ya kashe tashoshin 2G zai haifar da kwararar hanyar biyan kuɗi zuwa ga masu fafatawa, koda kuwa hakan bai yi tasiri sosai kan kuɗin shiga ba a halin yanzu. Amma kowa ya fahimci cewa ba dade ko ba dade masu amfani da 2G za su yi amfani da Intanet ta wayar hannu da sauran fa'idodin wayewa. Don haka, ana riƙe su kuma ana tura su ta hanyar da ta dace. Wannan motsi ne na hankali.

Don Allah a lura cewa kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi na yau ba su damu da tashoshin da za su yi amfani da su ba, kasuwannin gargajiya, wanda ke ba da kashi 43% na kudaden shiga na ma'aikata, yana amfani da zirga-zirgar fasaha, wato, wayoyin su na saukar da hasashen yanayi, suna amfani da sauri. manzanni da sabis na yanar gizo a cikin iyakataccen adadi. Ana siffanta su da kusan amfani da waɗannan sabis ɗin. Gudun haɗin haɗin don irin waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi, da sauran sigogi ba su taka rawa ba, ainihin gaskiyar samun haɗin gwiwa yana da mahimmanci. A ƙarshe, har yanzu muna da kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi, wanda ke kawo rabin kuɗin shiga, kuma masu aiki suna jagorantar su, suna ƙoƙarin mayar da nau'i biyu na farko na masu biyan kuɗi zuwa irin waɗannan masu amfani a hanya. Kuma wannan tsari yana tafiya sannu a hankali.

Kuma yanzu bari mu kalli tashoshi nawa kowanne daga cikin ma'aikatan ke da shi, daga nan bayanan Roskomnadzor a ƙarshen 2016.

Kun riga kun san cewa farashin gyara, da farashin tashoshin tushe na ma'auni daban-daban, sun bambanta. Don haka, yana da kyau a ga tashoshin da kowane kamfani ke da shi kuma a nawa ne, ga jadawali masu dacewa.

Misali, zamu iya kwatanta Tele2 da Beeline, ya bayyana cewa a cikin ma'aunin 4G Tele2 yana da tashoshi 11,000 akan tashoshin 18,600 na Beeline. Yana da sauƙi a lissafta cewa farashin kula da tashoshin 4G a Beeline ya fi girma, tunda akwai kawai ƙari. A wasu ma'aunai, adadin tashoshi na waɗannan ma'aikatan guda biyu sun yi kama da juna. Idan muka yi la'akari da farashin sabis na waɗannan ma'aikata guda biyu, to, Beeline yana kashe ƙarin kuɗi akan hanyar sadarwarsa, wannan ba kawai siyan ƙarin tashoshi ba ne, har ma da ƙarin farashin wutar lantarki a kowane tashar, ƙarin sa'o'i na lokaci don kulawa da shigarwa. Farashin hanyar sadarwar da ke kunshe da adadin tashoshi masu yawa ya fi girma, watau ma'aikaci yana haifar da ƙarin farashi. Ana yin duk wannan tare da manufa guda ɗaya: don ƙara yuwuwar cewa a maki biyu (gida da aiki) za ku sami kyakkyawar alaƙa kuma za ku zaɓi ma'aikacin da ya ba da mafi kyawun ɗaukar hoto da ingancin sabis.

MegaFon yana da mafi yawan adadin tashoshin tushe a Rasha, MTS iri ɗaya ya fi ƙanƙanta, kuma Tele2 da Beeline suna bayan tashoshi kusan 75,000. Yana da sauƙi a ƙididdige cewa farashin kiyaye hanyar sadarwa don MegaFon ya fi girma fiye da na waɗannan masu aiki guda biyu. Amma adadin masu biyan kuɗi na "nauyi", waɗanda ke amfani da tsare-tsare masu tsada don canja wurin bayanai masu yawa, kuma sun fi girma. A cikin MTS guda ɗaya, suna ƙoƙarin kiyaye ƙayyadaddun ma'auni, wato, gina hanyar sadarwa da kiyaye farashi a matakin da ya dace, fiye da na Beeline da Tele2, amma ƙasa da na MegaFon.

A cikin wannan wasan, kowane ma'aikaci yana zaɓar hanyarsa, alal misali, MegaFon yana ƙoƙarin gina babbar hanyar sadarwa, wato, don haɓaka damarsa na jawo mafi yawan masu biyan kuɗi waɗanda za su buƙaci ƙimar canja wurin bayanai. p> Da fatan za a lura cewa matsakaicin ARPU na 300 rubles ya gaya mana cewa gasa a kasuwa shine matsakaicin kuma duk masu aiki suna iyakance ta farashin sabis daga maƙwabtansu a kasuwa. Don haka, MegaFon guda ɗaya yana karɓar kuɗi kaɗan daga masu biyan kuɗi, tunda farashin kula da hanyar sadarwa ya fi girma. A ka'idar, wannan yana nufin cewa masu biyan kuɗi suna samun saurin sauri, mafi kyawun hanyar sadarwa, amma ko dai ba su sani ba game da shi ko kuma ba su la'akari da shi da mahimmanci, saboda suna kwatanta farashi tare da sauran masu aiki kuma suna farin ciki cewa sabis ɗin yana da rahusa, ba tare da sanin hakan ba. yayi daidai da farashin ma'aikacin matakin. Bambance-bambancen kasuwancin sadarwar Rasha shine cewa irin waɗannan ma'aikata kamar Tele2 da Beeline suna samun nasara a hukumance, suna saka hannun jari kaɗan a cikin ababen more rayuwa na hanyoyin sadarwar su, amma suna haɓaka farashin tallace-tallace da siyar da cibiyoyin sadarwar da suka fi girma da ɗaukar hoto, da kuma tare da ƙananan saurin shiga. don kudi mai yawa.

Kamar yadda kuke gani, akwai iyakoki guda biyu don masu aiki. Daga sama, wannan shine farashin sabis a kasuwa, wanda ba zai iya bambanta sau da yawa ko ma da kashi goma cikin dari, in ba haka ba masu biyan kuɗi za su fara gudu zuwa wasu masu aiki. A ƙasa akwai kuɗin kula da hanyar sadarwar, wanda kai tsaye ya dogara da adadin tashoshin tushe na zamani, da kuma adadin yawan tashoshin tushe (ba a ma maganar hanyoyin sadarwar kashin baya tsakanin biranen).

Ƙara girman cibiyar sadarwa koyaushe yana yin mummunan tasiri ga ma'auni na tashar tushe ɗaya, ana rarraba kira da watsa bayanai akan adadin tashoshi masu yawa. A gefe guda, wannan yana nufin kai tsaye cewa mai biyan kuɗi ya sami ingantaccen kewayon cibiyar sadarwa da iya aiki. Idan kuwa ko ta yaya zai iya tantance abu na farko, to kasancewar sauran mutane a cikin hanyar sadarwar bai dame shi ba, yana sha’awar wace irin alaka ce kawai yake da shi. Mu, a matsayinmu na masu amfani, muna kimanta ma'aikata bisa ga ra'ayinmu na zahiri, kuma muna la'akari da farashin sabis a matsayin mafi mahimmancin ma'auni, saboda wasu dalilai suna daidaita duk ma'aikata zuwa ma'auni na kowa kuma muna imani cewa su ɗaya ne. Amma wannan ba gaskiya bane ko kadan. Lokacin samun kwatankwacin ƙima, kuna buƙatar sanin bambance-bambance a cikin girman cibiyar sadarwa, wanda kuma yana shafar ƙwarewar mai amfani da ku. A cikin wannan labarin, na yi ƙoƙari in bayyana yadda aka samar da farashi ga ma'aikacin kuma dalilin da yasa kowannensu yana da dabarun daban. Wanda ke matse duk wani abu mai yuwuwa daga ƙaramin hanyar sadarwa, kuma wanda ke ƙoƙarin ba da haɗin kai a matsakaicin adadin wurare.

Nazarin kujera #117. Farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikaci - me yasa ba daidai ba ne da kuma yadda za'a iya ƙididdige shi

Wannan batu ne na har abada kuma tambaya ta har abada wacce daga cikin ma'aikatan ta fi kyau kuma wacce ta fi muni. Matsalar wannan tambaya ita ce, duk wanda ya tattauna shi ya san ainihin abin da ke aiki daidai da abin da ba ya aiki kuma me yasa mai aiki A ya fi mai aiki B, ko, akasin haka, mafi muni. Wani lokaci da ya wuce, mun ma fitar da jerin labarai kan yadda ake kimanta masu aiki yadda ya kamata, ingancin ayyukansu, kuma kuna son waɗannan labaran. Don kar in maimaita kaina, ina ba da shawarar sake karanta su. Suna bayyana cikakken tambayar menene sadarwar salula da abin da zai iya dogara da shi.

A cikin "Sofa Analytics" na yau zan so in yi tsokaci game da farashin sabis na sadarwa ga ma'aikatan Rasha da kuma dalilin da yasa ba haka ba ne ga kamfanoni daban-daban. Idan ka yi la'akari da bayanan kudi na masu aiki, ya zama cewa ARPU, wato, matsakaicin kudin shiga na kowane wata ga mai biyan kuɗi a Rasha, da ko ragi daidai ne ga kowane kamfani kuma ya kai kimanin 300 rubles. Daga farkon kwata na 2017, MTS yanke shawarar kada ya bayyana ARPU Manuniya, kazalika da matsakaicin adadin minti da biyan kuɗi (MOU), kazalika da yawan sauran sigogi, misali, fitar da biyan kuɗi tushe. Dalilin ana kiransa canjin kasuwancin, amma watanni shida kafin hakan, MTS ta ce wannan bayanan yana da mahimmanci kuma kamfanin zai buga su. Rikicin lokaci ne lokacin da kowane ma'aikaci ya zama ƙasa da gaskiya, Tele2 ya riga ya tafi daidai wannan hanya, yayin da zamu iya cewa Beeline da MegaFon suna riƙe, duka ma'aikatan biyu ba sa cire daidaitattun ƙididdiga daga rahotannin su. Dalilin da ya sa masu aiki suka fara buga bayanan banal, adadin su yana raguwa, masu kudi sun fara tsefe su ta yadda za a sami kyakkyawan ra'ayi. Yawan bayanan da ake samu a cikin jama'a, zai iya zama da wuya a lalata wannan ra'ayi.

A cikin wannan labarin zan yi ƙoƙari in ba ku ra'ayi game da menene farashin sadarwa ga ma'aikaci, amma ina so in yi muku gargaɗi nan da nan cewa za a rufe wasu batutuwa cikin manyan bugun jini, an ambaci wasu abubuwan. a wucewa, tunda a cikin daya ba zai yiwu a yi la'akari da su duka dalla-dalla ba.

Muhimmiyar warwarewa game da sharuɗɗan kasuwanci gabaɗaya

Don sauƙaƙa tattaunawar masu aiki, bari mu fara da ƴan zato waɗanda ba su da nisa sosai da gaskiya. Zan jera su cikin tsari:

  • Kowane ma'aikaci yana aiki a cikin mafi yawan yankuna, bi da bi, kusan iri ɗaya ne ta fuskar shiga cikin batutuwa daban-daban na Tarayyar Rasha;
  • Farashin wutar lantarki ga ma'aikata yana kan matsakaita iri ɗaya a duk faɗin ƙasar;
  • Farashin kuɗin aiki na kowane ma'aikaci kusan iri ɗaya ne, suna daidai da yanayin daidaitawa;
  • Kujerun hayar tashoshi na iya bambanta a cikin gida, amma matsakaicin farashin kowane tasha iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikaci;
  • Farashin tasha, duk da masu samar da kayayyaki iri-iri, iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikata kuma ya bambanta bisa ƙa'ida, wato 3G tashoshi suna biyan X ga duk ma'aikata, kuma tashoshin 4G sun ci Y, kuma waɗannan farashin su ne. haka.
  • Kowane ma'aikaci yana aiki a cikin mafi yawan yankuna, bi da bi, kusan iri ɗaya ne ta fuskar shiga cikin batutuwa daban-daban na Tarayyar Rasha;
  • Farashin wutar lantarki ga ma'aikata yana kan matsakaita iri ɗaya a duk faɗin ƙasar;
  • Kayan Wutar Lantarki a Greater Accra Kayayyakin Wutar Lantarki A Greater Accra
  • Farashin kuɗin aiki na kowane ma'aikaci kusan iri ɗaya ne, suna daidai da yanayin daidaitawa;
  • Kujerun hayar tashoshi na iya bambanta a cikin gida, amma matsakaicin farashin kowane tasha iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikaci;
  • Farashin tasha, duk da masu samar da kayayyaki iri-iri, iri ɗaya ne ga kowane ma'aikata kuma ya bambanta bisa ƙa'ida, wato 3G tashoshi suna biyan X ga duk ma'aikata, kuma tashoshin 4G sun ci Y, kuma waɗannan farashin su ne. haka.
  • Kamar yadda ake sauƙaƙawa da gangan, wannan ba ya ba mu hoto na gaske na duniya, a wani wuri ma'aikaci ya sami ingantacciyar hanyar samar da kayan aiki kuma ya sami kashi biyu cikin ɗari, wani ma'aikacin ya san yadda ake jan hankalin mutane akan kuɗi kaɗan da zaburarwa. su yi aiki. Amma ga da'irar, farashin su a cikin wuraren da aka lissafa ƙari ko ragi iri ɗaya ne, ana samun riba a wani wuri ta hanyar aiki mafi muni a wasu fannoni. Ga labarinmu, waɗannan lokutan ba su da mahimmanci, za ku iya koyan su da kanku.

    Me yasa tashoshin 2G ba su da mahimmanci kuma me yasa masu aiki ke son wayoyin hannu

    Kowane ma'aikaci yana ƙididdige ma'auni na kowane tashar tushe, wannan shine, idan kuna so, tsarin tattalin arziki mafi sauƙi wanda ke nuna yadda irin wannan tashar tushe ke da fa'ida da riba. Da kyau, kowane tashar tashar ya kamata ya zama mai riba, alal misali, wannan ita ce hanyar da masu aiki a Amurka ke bi, kuma ba sa zuwa yankunan da ba a taɓa samun buƙatun sabis na su ba. A matsayinka na mai mulki, duk abin da ba shi da kyau a kan tituna a cikin Amurka tare da sadarwa, kuma ana bambanta wuraren shakatawa iri ɗaya ta hanyar kusan cikakkiyar rashin sadarwa, ban da tsibirin yawon shakatawa tare da otal-otal, inda ma'auni na tashar tushe guda ɗaya. yana da kyau koyaushe, yayin da mutane ke amfani da shi zuwa cikakken shirin. A kasar Rasha ma’aikatan da ke aiki ba sa son kafa tashoshi a kan manyan titunan gwamnatin tarayya, saboda ba su da alaka da wutar lantarki, kuma adadin motocin da ke wucewa ya sa hakan bai sa an kafa ko tasha daya na tsawon dubun-duba na titin ba. A lokacin da jihar ta tilastawa ma’aikatan wajen warware wannan matsala, sai suka samu mafita wajen gina irin wadannan tashoshi tare da gudanar da ayyukansu na hadin gwiwa, inda aka raba dukkan kudaden da aka kashe a hannun jari daidai.

    Abin takaici ga masu aiki, tashoshin tushe ba daidai suke da juna ba, BS a cikin ma'aunin 2G yana kawo mafi ƙarancin kudin shiga, tashoshin 3G suna ba da kaɗan kaɗan, kuma tashoshin 4G suna ba da matsakaicin kudin shiga. A bayyane yake cewa farashin su ya bambanta sosai, amma fa'idodin da tashoshin 4G suke kawowa a bayyane yake, wannan shine yanki mafi kiba a kasuwa.

    Kuna iya kwatanta wannan daga akasin haka, dubi ARPU na masu biyan kuɗi na ɓangaren tattalin arziki, a cikin 2015 ya kasance 120 rubles. A duk masu aiki, kusan 40-45% na masu biyan kuɗi a yau suna amfani da sabis na murya kawai, suna kashe watsa bayanai. Har ila yau, ba lallai ba ne su yi amfani da wayoyi masu amfani da turawa, akwai kuma wadanda suka sayi na'urorin Galaxy ko iPhone na zamani, amma suna kashe bayanan da ba dole ba ne, tun da suna amfani da Wi-Fi ko kuma kawai suna kiran wayoyinsu.

    Don Allah a lura cewa a cikin hoton kashi 44% na masu biyan kuɗi suna kawo kashi 7% na kudaden shiga na kamfani, waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ba su da riba sosai. Tabbas, masu amfani da wannan damar za su iya amfani da kowace tashar tashar jiragen ruwa, ba za a iya cewa suna amfani da tashoshi 2G kawai ba, duk da cewa hakan ya shafi masu amfani da na'urorin turawa (kashi 94% na dukkan maballin wayar 2G ne). Saboda waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi ne tashoshin tushe na 2G ba su bace a Rasha ba, kuma ana tilasta wa masu aiki su ci gaba da wanzuwa, dalili na biyu shine mafita na M2M, waɗanda kuma ke mai da hankali kan hanyoyin sadarwar 2G. A cikin Amurka, AT&T ya gargadi masu biyan kuɗi tare da na'urorin 2G a cikin 2016 cewa ba za su iya amfani da su ba daga Disamba 31, 2016. Kuma tun daga Janairu 2017, waɗannan na'urori ba sa aiki akan hanyar sadarwar AT&T.

    Me yasa ya yiwu a kashe irin wannan hanyar sadarwa a cikin Amurka, yayin da masu aiki na Rasha ba sa gaggawar yin hakan? Dalilin shi ne banal kuma cikin sauƙin bayani: ma'aikaci na farko da ya kashe tashoshin 2G zai haifar da kwararar hanyar biyan kuɗi zuwa ga masu fafatawa, koda kuwa hakan bai yi tasiri sosai kan kuɗin shiga ba a halin yanzu. Amma kowa ya fahimci cewa ba dade ko ba dade masu amfani da 2G za su yi amfani da Intanet ta wayar hannu da sauran fa'idodin wayewa. Don haka, ana riƙe su kuma ana tura su ta hanyar da ta dace. Wannan motsi ne na hankali.

    Don Allah a lura cewa kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi na yau ba kome ba ko waɗanne tashoshi ne suke yi musu hidima, kasuwar gargajiya, wacce ke ba da kashi 43% na kuɗin shiga na ma'aikata, suna amfani da zirga-zirgar fasaha, wato, wayoyinsu na saukar da hasashen yanayi. , suna amfani da saƙon gaggawa da sabis na yanar gizo a cikin iyakataccen adadi. Ana siffanta su da kusan amfani da waɗannan sabis ɗin. Gudun haɗin haɗin don irin waɗannan masu biyan kuɗi, da sauran sigogi ba su taka rawa ba, ainihin gaskiyar samun haɗin gwiwa yana da mahimmanci. A ƙarshe, har yanzu muna da kashi uku na masu biyan kuɗi, wanda ke kawo rabin kuɗin shiga, kuma masu aiki suna jagorantar su, suna ƙoƙarin juya nau'ikan biyu na farko na masu biyan kuɗi zuwa irin waɗannan masu amfani a hanya. Kuma wannan tsari yana tafiya sannu a hankali.

    Kuma yanzu bari mu kalli tashoshi nawa kowanne daga cikin ma'aikatan ke da shi, daga nan bayanan Roskomnadzor a ƙarshen 2016.

    Kun riga kun san cewa farashin gyara, da farashin tashoshin tushe na ma'auni daban-daban, sun bambanta. Don haka, yana da kyau a ga tashoshin da kowane kamfani ke da shi kuma a nawa ne, ga jadawali masu dacewa.

    Misali, zamu iya kwatanta Tele2 da Beeline, ya bayyana cewa a cikin ma'aunin 4G Tele2 yana da tashoshi 11,000 akan tashoshin 18,600 na Beeline. Yana da sauƙi a lissafta cewa farashin kula da tashoshin 4G a Beeline ya fi girma, tunda akwai kawai ƙari. A wasu ma'aunai, adadin tashoshi na waɗannan ma'aikatan guda biyu sun yi kama da juna. Idan muka yi la'akari da farashin sabis na waɗannan ma'aikata guda biyu, to, Beeline yana kashe ƙarin kuɗi akan hanyar sadarwarsa, wannan ba kawai siyan ƙarin tashoshi ba ne, har ma da ƙarin farashin wutar lantarki a kowane tashar, ƙarin sa'o'i na lokaci don kulawa da shigarwa. Farashin hanyar sadarwar da ke kunshe da adadin tashoshi masu yawa ya fi girma, watau ma'aikaci yana haifar da ƙarin farashi. Ana yin duk wannan tare da manufa guda ɗaya: don ƙara yuwuwar cewa a maki biyu (gida da aiki) za ku sami kyakkyawar alaƙa kuma za ku zaɓi ma'aikacin da ya ba da mafi kyawun ɗaukar hoto da ingancin sabis.

    MegaFon yana da mafi yawan adadin tashoshin tushe a Rasha, MTS iri ɗaya ya fi ƙanƙanta, kuma Tele2 da Beeline suna bayan tashoshi kusan 75,000. Yana da sauƙi a ƙididdige cewa farashin kiyaye hanyar sadarwa don MegaFon ya fi girma fiye da na waɗannan masu aiki guda biyu. Amma adadin masu biyan kuɗi na "nauyi", waɗanda ke amfani da tsare-tsare masu tsada don canja wurin bayanai masu yawa, kuma sun fi girma. A cikin MTS guda ɗaya, suna ƙoƙarin kiyaye ƙayyadaddun ma'auni, wato, gina hanyar sadarwa da kiyaye farashi a matakin da ya dace, fiye da na Beeline da Tele2, amma ƙasa da na MegaFon.

    A cikin wannan wasan, kowane ma'aikaci yana zaɓar hanyarsa, alal misali, MegaFon yana ƙoƙarin gina babbar hanyar sadarwa, wato, don haɓaka damarsa na jawo mafi yawan masu biyan kuɗi waɗanda za su buƙaci ƙimar canja wurin bayanai. p> Da fatan za a lura cewa matsakaicin ARPU na 300 rubles ya gaya mana cewa gasa a kasuwa shine matsakaicin kuma duk masu aiki suna iyakance ta farashin sabis daga maƙwabtansu a kasuwa. Don haka, MegaFon guda ɗaya yana karɓar kuɗi kaɗan daga masu biyan kuɗi, tunda farashin kula da hanyar sadarwa ya fi girma. A ka'idar, wannan yana nufin cewa masu biyan kuɗi suna samun saurin sauri, mafi kyawun hanyar sadarwa, amma ko dai ba su sani ba game da shi ko kuma ba su la'akari da shi da mahimmanci, saboda suna kwatanta farashi tare da sauran masu aiki kuma suna farin ciki cewa sabis ɗin yana da rahusa, ba tare da sanin hakan ba. yayi daidai da farashin ma'aikacin matakin. Bambance-bambancen kasuwancin sadarwar Rasha shine cewa irin waɗannan ma'aikata kamar Tele2 da Beeline suna samun nasara a hukumance, suna saka hannun jari kaɗan a cikin ababen more rayuwa na hanyoyin sadarwar su, amma suna haɓaka farashin tallace-tallace da siyar da cibiyoyin sadarwar da suka fi girma da ɗaukar hoto, da kuma tare da ƙananan saurin shiga. don kudi mai yawa.

    Kamar yadda kuke gani, akwai iyakoki guda biyu don masu aiki. Daga sama, wannan shine farashin sabis a kasuwa, wanda ba zai iya bambanta sau da yawa ko ma da kashi goma cikin dari, in ba haka ba masu biyan kuɗi za su fara gudu zuwa wasu masu aiki. A ƙasa akwai kuɗin kula da hanyar sadarwar, wanda kai tsaye ya dogara da adadin tashoshin tushe na zamani, da kuma adadin yawan tashoshin tushe (ba a ma maganar hanyoyin sadarwar kashin baya tsakanin biranen).

    Ƙara girman cibiyar sadarwa koyaushe yana yin mummunan tasiri ga ma'auni na tashar tushe ɗaya, ana rarraba kira da watsa bayanai akan adadin tashoshi masu yawa. A gefe guda, wannan yana nufin kai tsaye cewa mai biyan kuɗi ya sami ingantaccen kewayon cibiyar sadarwa da iya aiki. Idan kuwa ko ta yaya zai iya tantance abu na farko, to kasancewar sauran mutane a cikin hanyar sadarwar bai dame shi ba, yana sha’awar wace irin alaka ce kawai yake da shi. Mu, a matsayinmu na masu amfani, muna kimanta ma'aikata bisa ga ra'ayinmu na zahiri, kuma muna la'akari da farashin sabis a matsayin mafi mahimmancin ma'auni, saboda wasu dalilai suna daidaita duk ma'aikata zuwa ma'auni na kowa kuma muna imani cewa su ɗaya ne. Amma wannan ba gaskiya bane ko kadan. Lokacin samun kwatankwacin ƙima, kuna buƙatar sanin bambance-bambance a cikin girman cibiyar sadarwa, wanda kuma yana shafar ƙwarewar mai amfani da ku. A cikin wannan labarin, na yi ƙoƙari in bayyana yadda aka samar da farashi ga ma'aikacin kuma dalilin da yasa kowannensu yana da dabarun daban. Wanda ke matse duk wani abu mai yuwuwa daga ƙaramin hanyar sadarwa, kuma wanda ke ƙoƙarin ba da haɗin kai a matsakaicin adadin wurare.