Tarihin katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya

Watakila, babu wani nau'in nau'ikan na'urori irin wannan, duk tarihin su zai kasance yana da alaƙa da tarihin masana'antar wayar hannu. Na'urorin hannu da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya sun bayyana kusan lokaci guda kuma tun daga lokacin suke haɓaka hannu da hannu, suna ci gaba da haɓaka haɓakar juna. Suna da alaƙa da juna ta yadda ta hanyar bin diddigin ci gaban taswirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, zaku iya sake duba kowane lokaci na tarihin wayar hannu ... wanda shine abin da za mu yi ƙoƙari mu yi.

Kashi na 1. Zamanin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka

Tarihi na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ya fara kusan 1989. Gabaɗaya, tarihin haɓakar haɓakar na'urorin wayar hannu ya fara a lokaci guda.

Lokaci ne mai wahala ga masana'antar wayar hannu. "Nauyi" a cikin ma'anar gaske - an auna nauyin na'urorin hannu a cikin kilogiram. A zahiri, a lokacin, ana fahimtar na'urorin tafi-da-gidanka a matsayin "kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka", a wasu kalmomi, kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Masu amfani sun fara sabawa da manufar "wayar hannu" sun fuskanci matsalolin farko na rayuwar dijital ta wayar hannu. Abin mamaki shine, farkon waɗannan matsalolin shine wahalar gyara kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Lokaci na ƙarshen wannan rikici da farkon zamanin ma'auni na katin flash ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin kafa a 1989 na wata ƙungiya mai suna PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). Wannan ƙungiyar ta haɗu da kamfanoni fiye da ɗari don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin kasa da kasa don fadada katunan, kuma ta yi nasara. A wancan lokacin, kawai mai fafatawa ga PCMCIA shine JEIDA na Jafananci zalla, amma yakin ma'auni bai yi aiki ba. Tuni a cikin 1991, waɗannan ƙungiyoyi sun fitar da sabbin nau'ikan ka'idodin su, JEIDA 4.1 da PCMCIA 2.0, waɗanda gaba ɗaya suke kuma suna wakiltar ma'auni ɗaya, mai suna PC-Card.

Ma'aunin ya dogara ne akan sabon tsarin gine-gine, maimakon PCMCIA wanda ba a san shi ba (a wannan lokacin ya tsaya ga "Peripheral Component MicroChannel Interconnect Architecture"). Ya tanadar don "zafi" toshe katunan fadadawa, wato, don toshe katin, ba lallai ba ne a kashe kwamfutar. A karkashin wannan gine-gine, an samar da katunan a cikin nau'i nau'i uku: Nau'in I, Nau'in II da Nau'in III. Dukkan abubuwa ukun suna da tsayi da faɗi ɗaya (85.6x54.0 mm), amma kauri daban-daban da adadin lambobin sadarwa daban-daban.

Da farko, an ƙera katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha don nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i).wanda ke da jere guda na lambobin sadarwa da kauri na 3.3mm. Rubuta i Katunan da za a iya sakawa a cikin nau'ikan da suka dace da na zamana da sauran kayan masana'antu, amma nau'in iii bai ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii ba, haka kwamfyutocin III sun ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii da aka yi, p>

A wajen kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i) fiye da nau'in II.5.0mm. Katunan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan biyu sun dace daidai a cikin aljihu, kuma babu ƙimar hoto na bakin ciki a waɗannan shekarun. Amma Nau'in II yana da layuka biyu na fil kuma yana iya tallafawa musaya masu 32-bit, ban da 16-bit, kamar Nau'in I. A sakamakon haka, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in I nau'in ya sami raguwa kaɗan.

PCMCIA na nufin Nau'in II don abubuwan I/O kamar modem da katunan cibiyar sadarwa, amma babu wani abu a cikin ma'auni da zai hana yin amfani da wannan nau'in nau'i don katunan filasha. Girman girman katin ya ba da damar samun adadin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya mai girma, wanda ke da mahimmanci sosai, saboda Nau'in Katin PC na farko, mafi yawan adadin megabyte ɗaya ne kawai. A ka'ida, 32-bit interface ya kamata ya ba da fa'ida a cikin saurin karantawa / rubuta, amma ya ɗauki shekaru kafin ya fara mahimmanci. Tsawon shekaru da yawa, abubuwan da ke ƙayyade wurin zabar ma'auni sune girman katin da kuma yawan ramummukan da suka dace.

Tabbatacce, Masu zanen wuta na katin Flash din za su juya hankalinsu ga nau'in nau'ikan III tare da karfin 10.5, amma a lokacin, Flash Babu makawa mai wahala tare da rumbun kwamfutarka. Bambance-bambancen farashin ya mamaye duk abubuwan da aka samu daga amincin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya da ƙarancin ƙarfinsa. Don haka, Nau'in III ya kasance sifar sigar ma'aunin tukwici mai cirewa, kamar yadda aka tsara tun farko a PCMCIA. Akwai keɓancewa, amma sun kasance kaɗan kuma nesa tsakanin na'urorin I/O.

Ramin Nau'in Katin PC na III yana da ƙira ta asali. A lokaci guda, ya kasance nau'i-nau'i na nau'i na II, wanda ke kusa da juna, ko da ba tare da rabuwa ba. Katunan Nau'in III na iya amfani da duk layuka huɗu na fil, kodayake a aikace galibi suna yin da biyu. Wannan ƙirar ta juya ta zama mai dacewa sosai cewa na dogon lokaci ya zama daidaitaccen bayani ga kusan dukkanin kwamfyutocin. Ya wanzu shekaru da yawa, har sai an maye gurbin na'urorin PCMCIA masu cirewa da ƙarin mafita na zamani.

Nau'in Katin PC-Katin II da Nau'in Nau'in III

Yawancin kwamfyutocin yanzu suna da nau'in nau'in II guda ɗaya, kuma hakan ya isa. A bayyane yake, za a sayar da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci masu ramukan PC-Card Type II har sai an maye gurbin bas ɗin PCI da sabon PCI-Express, wanda ya dace da sabon ma'auni na katin faɗaɗa - ExpressCard, wanda ke da nasa nau'ikan abubuwan da ba su dace da PC ba. Kati da musaya.

Abubuwan da suka shafi Katin PC da ExpressCard

Katin Express vs. CardBus

Maganar nau'ikan nau'ikan katin PC-Card, wanda ba zai iya kasa ambaton yunƙurin Toshiba na ƙirƙirar wani nau'i nau'i ba - Nau'in IV. Kaurinsa ya kai mm 16.0. Samfurin tsarin bai yi nasara ba kuma babu wanda ya nema sai Toshiba. A cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka na wasu kamfanoni, babu wani wuri don wani ramin, wanda, haka ma, yana da irin wannan girman "marasa hannu". Nau'in IV da sauri ya mutu, bai bar komai ba sai sunan.

A cikin 1995, sabon ma'auni ya bayyana, PCMCIA 2.1, wanda ya dogara akan bas ɗin CardBus. A zahiri, bas ɗin PCI 32-bit ne mai mitar 33 MHz, amma ya dace da nau'in nau'in Katin PC. CardBus ya ba da damar na'urori guda biyu don sadarwa kai tsaye ba tare da takura na'urar ba, wanda ya kasance babban ƙari ga waɗannan shekarun. Sabbin katunan ba su dace da ramummuka 16-bit ba, amma wannan bai haifar da wata matsala ta musamman ba. Da sauri, duka katunan 16-bit da ramummuka 16-bit sun fadi daga amfani. CardBus Type II katunan sun riƙe dacewarsu har yau kuma suna da halaye masu kyau, alal misali, ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na 16 GB da saurin karantawa na 133X (20 MB / s) ba sa mamakin kowa yanzu. Gaskiya, waɗannan katunan ba su ƙarami ba.

Farkon masana'antar katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, PC-Cards kuma sun fara manyan abubuwan da ke faruwa a wannan masana'antar a yau. Don haka, a fagen kafofin watsa labaru masu cirewa, gasa tsakanin ma’adanin ma’adanin filasha da na’urorin kwamfuta ba ta tsaya a yau ba. Duk waɗannan shekarun, a gefen na ƙarshe, kawai ƙari shine ƙananan farashi na naúrar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Sauran ribobi na baya a cikin 1991 sun kasance a gefen ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya, wanda ba shi da sassa masu motsi. Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ta filasha ba ta da mahimmanci ga girgiza da rawar jiki, tana iya aiki fiye da yanayin zafi da zafi, kuma yana cinye ƙasa da ƙarfi fiye da tukwici. Tuni a kan misalin PC-Card, ya bayyana a sarari cewa walƙiya ya fi dacewa, kuma game da farashin kawai. Tun daga wannan lokacin, masu haɓaka ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar walƙiya suna ta ci gaba da aiki don sanya shi mai rahusa, amma wannan ba ya kai su ga nasara ta ƙarshe, tunda masu haɓaka rumbun kwamfyuta suma suna aiki a banza. Wannan gwagwarmaya har yanzu tana ci gaba, kuma mai yiwuwa za ta ci gaba har zuwa wani lokaci. Yana yiwuwa ba za a iya tantance wanda ya yi nasara a wannan arangamar ba, domin mahalartansa za su watse zuwa “nauyin nauyi” daban-daban: babu shakka katunan filasha za su fara jagoranci cikin ƙaramin girman, da faifan diski - cikin sauri.

Har ila yau, a daidai lokacin da PC-Card, an sami yanayin aiwatar da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da na'urorin I / O masu cirewa a cikin tsari iri ɗaya. Wannan hanyar tana da sakamako na musamman. Yawancin ma'auni na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya waɗanda ba su cika buƙatun zamani don ƙara ƙaranci sun kasance na kowa ba, tunda an aiwatar da abubuwa da yawa a cikin nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan, ban da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Ba za a iya cusa na'urorin I / O cikin ƙananan katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba. Ko da ya yi aiki a fasaha, zai zama da wahala a yi amfani da irin waɗannan na'urori. Don haka, tsoffin ƙa'idodi suna ci gaba da rayuwa. Yawancin na'urorin hannu suna sanye da madaidaitan ramummuka. Musamman, saboda wannan dalili, PC-Card da kansu ba su mutu ba tukuna. Wasu nau'ikan ramummuka har ma suna da damar zama daidaitattun haši don haɗa na'urori zuwa na'urorin hannu.

A ƙarshe, yana da kyau a lura da wani yanayin, misali na farko wanda shine PC-Card. Yana da game da al'adar amfani da ƙananan katunan a cikin manyan ramummuka na katin. Misali na farko shine nau'ikan nau'ikan katin-PC guda uku, amma abubuwa ba su tsaya nan ba. A baya a farkon 90s, ra'ayin ya kasance a bayyane cewa ko da katin da ƙananan tsayi da nisa za a iya haɗa shi ta hanyar PC-Card Ramin ta amfani da adaftar na musamman, kuma tare da wannan dubawa, mai sauƙi mai sauƙi. Don haka, a yau akwai adaftar PC-Card don duk ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwa na gama gari.

Adaftar Katin PC don Katin CompactFlash

A matsayin ƙarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya don kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci, katunan da ke buƙatar adaftar na musamman ba su da sha'awa kaɗan, saboda sun fi ɓata rai, kuma ƙaranci yana da tasiri sosai akan farashin. Koyaya, an samo sabon aikace-aikacen don irin waɗannan katunan - canja wurin bayanai. Cibiyoyin sadarwa ba su da kyau sosai, faifan floppy sun gaji da rashin dogaronsu, kuma ba kowane aljihu ya dace ba. Akwai buƙatar ƙaramin “faifan floppy disk ɗin da ba na injina ba”, saboda martanin da sabbin ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya suka bayyana. A gaskiya ma, wani sabon yanki ya bayyana a duniyar dijital wanda ya cancanci kulawa daban.

Tarihin katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya

Watakila, babu wani nau'in nau'ikan na'urori irin wannan, duk tarihin su zai kasance yana da alaƙa da tarihin masana'antar wayar hannu. Na'urorin hannu da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya sun bayyana kusan lokaci guda kuma tun daga lokacin suke haɓaka hannu da hannu, suna ci gaba da haɓaka haɓakar juna. Suna da alaƙa da juna ta yadda ta hanyar bin diddigin ci gaban taswirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, zaku iya sake duba kowane lokaci na tarihin wayar hannu ... wanda shine abin da za mu yi ƙoƙari mu yi.

Kashi na 1. Zamanin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka

Tarihi na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ya fara kusan 1989. Gabaɗaya, tarihin haɓakar haɓakar na'urorin wayar hannu ya fara a lokaci guda.

Lokaci ne mai wahala ga masana'antar wayar hannu. "Nauyi" a cikin ma'anar gaske - an auna nauyin na'urorin hannu a cikin kilogiram. A zahiri, a lokacin, ana fahimtar na'urorin tafi-da-gidanka a matsayin "kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka", a wasu kalmomi, kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Masu amfani sun fara sabawa da manufar "wayar hannu" sun fuskanci matsalolin farko na rayuwar dijital ta wayar hannu. Abin mamaki shine, farkon waɗannan matsalolin shine wahalar gyara kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Mutane sun biya makudan kudade domin samun damar daukar a cikin jaka wani dodo mai nauyi mai nauyin allo wanda ba a iya gane shi, da maballin kwamfuta mara dadi da kuma na’ura mai sarrafa kwamfuta na 386. A dabi'a, don kuɗin su suna son aƙalla kwanciyar hankali kaɗan. Ba sa son yawo a cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka tare da screwdriver ko jan shi zuwa ga masana a duk lokacin da suke buƙatar ƙara wani abu a cikin tsarinsa.

Ana buƙatar ƙara akai-akai. Babu isassun kayan aiki, kuma babu kebul na USB a lokacin. Ko da sau da yawa babu isasshen sarari akan rumbun kwamfutarka. A lokacin, ana ƙididdige juzu'i na rumbun kwamfyuta a megabytes ko kuma, a cikin matsanancin yanayi, dubun megabyte. Ba mamaki mutane da yawa sun rasa shi. Kowane mai kera kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka ya warware wannan matsala ta hanyarsa, babu ƙa'idodi, amma, a ka'idar, yawancin mafita sun sauko don amfani da na'urori na waje tare da rumbun kwamfyuta ko ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha. Tabbas, duk sun dace da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci ne kawai daga masana'anta, wanda ya fusata masu amfani. Ba zai iya ci gaba haka ba na dogon lokaci.

Lokaci na ƙarshen wannan rikici da farkon zamanin ma'auni na katin flash ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin kafa a 1989 na wata ƙungiya mai suna PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). Wannan ƙungiyar ta haɗu da kamfanoni fiye da ɗari don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin kasa da kasa don fadada katunan, kuma ta yi nasara. A wancan lokacin, kawai mai fafatawa ga PCMCIA shine JEIDA na Jafananci zalla, amma yakin ma'auni bai yi aiki ba. Tuni a cikin 1991, waɗannan ƙungiyoyi sun fitar da sabbin nau'ikan ka'idodin su, JEIDA 4.1 da PCMCIA 2.0, waɗanda gaba ɗaya suke kuma suna wakiltar ma'auni ɗaya, mai suna PC-Card.

Ma'aunin ya dogara ne akan sabon tsarin gine-gine, maimakon PCMCIA wanda ba a san shi ba (a wannan lokacin ya tsaya ga "Peripheral Component MicroChannel Interconnect Architecture"). Ya tanadar don "zafi" toshe katunan fadadawa, wato, don toshe katin, ba lallai ba ne a kashe kwamfutar. A karkashin wannan gine-gine, an samar da katunan a cikin nau'i nau'i uku: Nau'in I, Nau'in II da Nau'in III. Dukkan abubuwa ukun suna da tsayi da faɗi ɗaya (85.6x54.0 mm), amma kauri daban-daban da adadin lambobin sadarwa daban-daban.

Da farko, an ƙera katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha don nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i).wanda ke da jere guda na lambobin sadarwa da kauri na 3.3mm. Rubuta i Katunan da za a iya sakawa a cikin nau'ikan da suka dace da na zamana da sauran kayan masana'antu, amma nau'in iii bai ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii ba, haka kwamfyutocin III sun ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii da aka yi, p>

A waje da littattafan rubutu, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau’in nau’in nau’in rubutu) ba shi da wani fa’ida fiye da mafi kauri (5.0 mm) Nau’in II. Katunan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan biyu sun dace daidai a cikin aljihu, kuma babu ƙimar hoto na bakin ciki a waɗannan shekarun. Amma Nau'in II yana da layuka biyu na fil kuma yana iya tallafawa musaya masu 32-bit, ban da 16-bit, kamar Nau'in I. A sakamakon haka, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in I nau'in ya sami raguwa kaɗan.

PCMCIA na nufin Nau'in II don abubuwan I/O kamar modem da katunan cibiyar sadarwa, amma babu wani abu a cikin ma'auni da zai hana yin amfani da wannan nau'in nau'i don katunan filasha. Girman girman katin ya ba da damar samun adadin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya mai girma, wanda ke da mahimmanci sosai, saboda Nau'in Katin PC na farko, mafi yawan adadin megabyte ɗaya ne kawai. A ka'ida, 32-bit interface ya kamata ya ba da fa'ida a cikin saurin karantawa / rubuta, amma ya ɗauki shekaru kafin ya fara mahimmanci. Tsawon shekaru da yawa, abubuwan da ke ƙayyade wurin zabar ma'auni sune girman katin da kuma yawan ramummukan da suka dace.

Tabbatacce, Masu zanen wuta na katin Flash din za su juya hankalinsu ga nau'in nau'ikan III tare da karfin 10.5, amma a lokacin, Flash Babu makawa mai wahala tare da rumbun kwamfutarka. Bambance-bambancen farashin ya mamaye duk abubuwan da aka samu daga amincin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya da ƙarancin ƙarfinsa. Don haka, Nau'in III ya kasance sifar sigar ma'aunin tukwici mai cirewa, kamar yadda aka tsara tun farko a PCMCIA. Akwai keɓancewa, amma sun kasance kaɗan kuma nesa tsakanin na'urorin I/O.

Ramin Nau'in Katin PC na III yana da ƙira ta asali. A lokaci guda, ya kasance nau'i-nau'i na nau'i na II, wanda ke kusa da juna, ko da ba tare da rabuwa ba. Katunan Nau'in III na iya amfani da duk layuka huɗu na fil, kodayake a aikace galibi suna yin da biyu. Wannan ƙirar ta juya ta zama mai dacewa sosai cewa na dogon lokaci ya zama daidaitaccen bayani ga kusan dukkanin kwamfyutocin. Ya wanzu shekaru da yawa, har sai an maye gurbin na'urorin PCMCIA masu cirewa da ƙarin mafita na zamani.

Nau'in Katin PC-Katin II da Nau'in Nau'in III

Yawancin kwamfyutocin yanzu suna da nau'in nau'in II guda ɗaya, kuma hakan ya isa. A bayyane yake, za a sayar da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci masu ramukan PC-Card Type II har sai an maye gurbin bas ɗin PCI da sabon PCI-Express, wanda ya dace da sabon ma'auni na katin faɗaɗa - ExpressCard, wanda ke da nasa nau'ikan abubuwan da ba su dace da PC ba. Kati da musaya.

Abubuwan da suka shafi Katin PC da ExpressCard

Katin Express vs. CardBus

Maganar nau'ikan nau'ikan katin PC-Card, wanda ba zai iya kasa ambaton yunƙurin Toshiba na ƙirƙirar wani nau'i nau'i ba - Nau'in IV. Kaurinsa ya kai mm 16.0. Samfurin tsarin bai yi nasara ba kuma babu wanda ya yi iƙirarin sai Toshiba. A cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka na wasu kamfanoni, babu wani wuri don wani ramin, wanda, haka ma, yana da irin wannan girman "marasa hannu". Nau'in IV da sauri ya mutu, bai bar komai ba sai sunan.

A cikin 1995, sabon ma'auni ya bayyana, PCMCIA 2.1, wanda ya dogara akan bas ɗin CardBus. A zahiri, bas ɗin PCI 32-bit ne mai mitar 33 MHz, amma ya dace da nau'in nau'in Katin PC. CardBus ya ba da damar na'urori guda biyu don sadarwa kai tsaye ba tare da takura na'urar ba, wanda ya kasance babban ƙari ga waɗannan shekarun. Sabbin katunan ba su dace da ramummuka 16-bit ba, amma wannan bai haifar da wata matsala ta musamman ba. Da sauri, duka katunan 16-bit da ramummuka 16-bit sun fadi daga amfani. CardBus Type II katunan sun riƙe dacewarsu har yau kuma suna da halaye masu kyau, alal misali, ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na 16 GB da saurin karantawa na 133X (20 MB / s) ba sa mamakin kowa yanzu. Gaskiya, waɗannan katunan ba su ƙarami ba.

Farkon masana'antar katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, PC-Cards kuma sun fara manyan abubuwan da ke faruwa a wannan masana'antar a yau. Don haka, a fagen kafofin watsa labaru masu cirewa, gasa tsakanin ma’adanin ma’adanin filasha da na’urorin kwamfuta ba ta tsaya a yau ba. Duk waɗannan shekarun, a gefen na ƙarshe, kawai ƙari shine ƙananan farashi na naúrar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Sauran ribobi na baya a cikin 1991 sun kasance a gefen ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya, wanda ba shi da sassa masu motsi. Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ta filasha ba ta da mahimmanci ga girgiza da rawar jiki, tana iya aiki fiye da yanayin zafi da zafi, kuma yana cinye ƙasa da ƙarfi fiye da tukwici. Tuni a kan misalin PC-Card, ya bayyana a sarari cewa walƙiya ya fi dacewa, kuma game da farashin kawai. Tun daga wannan lokacin, masu haɓaka ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar walƙiya suna ta ci gaba da aiki don sanya shi mai rahusa, amma wannan ba ya kai su ga nasara ta ƙarshe, tunda masu haɓaka rumbun kwamfyuta suma suna aiki a banza. Wannan gwagwarmaya har yanzu tana ci gaba, kuma mai yiwuwa za ta ci gaba har zuwa wani lokaci. Yana yiwuwa ba za a iya tantance wanda ya yi nasara a wannan arangamar ba, domin mahalartansa za su watse zuwa “nauyin nauyi” daban-daban: babu shakka katunan filasha za su fara jagoranci cikin ƙaramin girman, da faifan diski - cikin sauri.

Har ila yau, a daidai lokacin da PC-Card, an sami yanayin aiwatar da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da na'urorin I / O masu cirewa a cikin tsari iri ɗaya. Wannan hanyar tana da sakamako na musamman. Yawancin ma'auni na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya waɗanda ba su cika buƙatun zamani don ƙara ƙaranci sun kasance na kowa ba, tunda an aiwatar da abubuwa da yawa a cikin nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan, ban da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Ba za a iya cusa na'urorin I / O cikin ƙananan katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba. Ko da ya yi aiki a fasaha, zai zama da wahala a yi amfani da irin waɗannan na'urori. Don haka, tsoffin ƙa'idodi suna ci gaba da rayuwa. Yawancin na'urorin hannu suna sanye da madaidaitan ramummuka. Musamman, saboda wannan dalili, PC-Card da kansu ba su mutu ba tukuna. Wasu nau'ikan ramummuka har ma suna da damar zama daidaitattun haši don haɗa na'urori zuwa na'urorin hannu.

A ƙarshe, yana da kyau a lura da wani yanayin, misali na farko wanda shine PC-Card. Yana da game da al'adar amfani da ƙananan katunan a cikin manyan ramummuka na katin. Misali na farko shine nau'ikan nau'ikan katin-PC guda uku, amma abubuwa ba su tsaya nan ba. A baya a farkon 90s, ra'ayin ya kasance a bayyane cewa ko da katin da ƙananan tsayi da nisa za a iya haɗa shi ta hanyar PC-Card Ramin ta amfani da adaftar na musamman, kuma tare da wannan dubawa, mai sauƙi mai sauƙi. Don haka, a yau akwai adaftar PC-Card don duk ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwa na gama gari.

Adaftar Katin PC don Katin CompactFlash

A matsayin ƙarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya don kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci, katunan da ke buƙatar adaftar na musamman ba su da sha'awa kaɗan, saboda sun fi ɓata rai, kuma ƙaranci yana da tasiri sosai akan farashin. Koyaya, an samo sabon aikace-aikacen don irin waɗannan katunan - canja wurin bayanai. Cibiyoyin sadarwa ba su da kyau sosai, faifan floppy sun gaji da rashin dogaronsu, kuma ba kowane aljihu ya dace ba. Akwai buƙatar ƙaramin “faifan floppy disk ɗin da ba na injina ba”, saboda martanin da sabbin ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya suka bayyana. A gaskiya ma, wani sabon yanki ya bayyana a duniyar dijital wanda ya cancanci kulawa daban.

Tarihin katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya

Watakila, babu wani nau'in nau'ikan na'urori irin wannan, duk tarihin su zai kasance yana da alaƙa da tarihin masana'antar wayar hannu. Na'urorin hannu da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya sun bayyana kusan lokaci guda kuma tun daga lokacin suke haɓaka hannu da hannu, suna ci gaba da haɓaka haɓakar juna. Suna da alaƙa da juna ta yadda ta hanyar bin diddigin ci gaban taswirar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, zaku iya sake duba kowane lokaci na tarihin wayar hannu ... wanda shine abin da za mu yi ƙoƙari mu yi.

Kashi na 1. Zamanin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka

Tarihi na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ya fara kusan 1989. Gabaɗaya, tarihin haɓakar haɓakar na'urorin wayar hannu ya fara a lokaci guda.

Lokaci ne mai wahala ga masana'antar wayar hannu. "Nauyi" a cikin ma'anar gaske - an auna nauyin na'urorin hannu a cikin kilogiram. A zahiri, a lokacin, ana fahimtar na'urorin tafi-da-gidanka a matsayin "kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka", a wasu kalmomi, kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Masu amfani sun fara sabawa da manufar "wayar hannu" sun fuskanci matsalolin farko na rayuwar dijital ta wayar hannu. Abin mamaki shine, farkon waɗannan matsalolin shine wahalar gyara kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Mutane sun biya makudan kudade domin samun damar daukar wani babban dodo mai nauyin allo wanda ba a iya gane shi, da maballin kwamfuta mara dadi da processor na 386 a cikin jaka. A dabi'a, don kuɗin su suna son aƙalla kwanciyar hankali kaɗan. Ba sa son yawo a cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka tare da screwdriver ko jan shi zuwa ga kwararru don haka a duk lokacin da suke buƙatar ƙara wani abu a cikin tsarinsa.

Ana buƙatar ƙara akai-akai. Babu isassun kayan aiki, kuma babu kebul na USB a lokacin. Ko da sau da yawa babu isasshen sarari akan rumbun kwamfutarka. A lokacin, ana ƙididdige juzu'i na rumbun kwamfyuta a megabytes ko kuma, a cikin matsanancin yanayi, dubun megabyte. Ba mamaki mutane da yawa sun rasa shi. Kowane mai kera kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka ya warware wannan matsala ta hanyarsa, babu ƙa'idodi, amma, a ka'idar, yawancin mafita sun sauko don amfani da na'urori na waje tare da rumbun kwamfyuta ko ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha. Tabbas, duk sun dace da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci ne kawai daga masana'anta, wanda ya fusata masu amfani. Ba zai iya ci gaba haka ba na dogon lokaci.

Lokaci na ƙarshen wannan rikici da farkon zamanin ma'auni na katin flash ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin kafa a 1989 na wata ƙungiya mai suna PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). Wannan ƙungiyar ta haɗu da kamfanoni fiye da ɗari don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin kasa da kasa don fadada katunan, kuma ta yi nasara. A wancan lokacin, kawai mai fafatawa ga PCMCIA shine JEIDA na Jafananci zalla, amma yakin ma'auni bai yi aiki ba. Tuni a cikin 1991, waɗannan ƙungiyoyi sun fitar da sabbin nau'ikan ka'idodin su, JEIDA 4.1 da PCMCIA 2.0, waɗanda gaba ɗaya suke kuma suna wakiltar ma'auni ɗaya, mai suna PC-Card.

Ma'aunin ya dogara ne akan sabon tsarin gine-gine, maimakon PCMCIA wanda ba a san shi ba (a wannan lokacin ya tsaya ga "Peripheral Component MicroChannel Interconnect Architecture"). Ya tanadar don "zafi" toshe katunan fadadawa, wato, don toshe katin, ba lallai ba ne a kashe kwamfutar. A karkashin wannan gine-gine, an samar da katunan a cikin nau'i nau'i uku: Nau'in I, Nau'in II da Nau'in III. Dukkan abubuwa ukun suna da tsayi da faɗi ɗaya (85.6x54.0 mm), amma kauri daban-daban da adadin lambobin sadarwa daban-daban.

Da farko, an ƙera katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha don nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i).wanda ke da jere guda na lambobin sadarwa da kauri na 3.3mm. Rubuta i Katunan da za a iya sakawa a cikin nau'ikan da suka dace da na zamana da sauran kayan masana'antu, amma nau'in iii bai ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii ba, haka kwamfyutocin III sun ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii da aka yi, p>

A wajen kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i) fiye da nau'in II.5.0mm. Katunan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan biyu sun dace daidai a cikin aljihu, kuma babu ƙimar hoto na bakin ciki a waɗannan shekarun. Amma Nau'in II yana da layuka biyu na fil kuma yana iya tallafawa musaya masu 32-bit, ban da 16-bit, kamar Nau'in I. A sakamakon haka, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in I nau'in ya sami raguwa kaɗan.

PCMCIA na nufin Nau'in II don abubuwan I/O kamar modem da katunan cibiyar sadarwa, amma babu wani abu a cikin ma'auni da zai hana yin amfani da wannan nau'in nau'i don katunan filasha. Girman girman katin ya ba da damar samun adadin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya mai girma, wanda ke da mahimmanci sosai, saboda Nau'in Katin PC na farko, mafi yawan adadin megabyte ɗaya ne kawai. A ka'ida, 32-bit interface ya kamata ya ba da fa'ida a cikin saurin karantawa / rubuta, amma ya ɗauki shekaru kafin ya fara mahimmanci. Tsawon shekaru da yawa, abubuwan da ke ƙayyade wurin zabar ma'auni sune girman katin da kuma yawan ramummukan da suka dace.

Tabbatacce, Masu zanen wuta na katin Flash din za su juya hankalinsu ga nau'in nau'ikan III tare da karfin 10.5, amma a lokacin, Flash Babu makawa mai wahala tare da rumbun kwamfutarka. Bambance-bambancen farashin ya mamaye duk abubuwan da aka samu daga amincin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya da ƙarancin ƙarfinsa. Don haka, Nau'in III ya kasance sifar sigar ma'aunin tukwici mai cirewa, kamar yadda aka tsara tun farko a PCMCIA. Akwai keɓancewa, amma sun kasance kaɗan kuma nesa tsakanin na'urorin I/O.

Ramin Nau'in Katin PC na III yana da ƙira ta asali. A lokaci guda, ya kasance nau'i-nau'i na nau'i na II, wanda ke kusa da juna, ko da ba tare da rabuwa ba. Katunan Nau'in III na iya amfani da duk layuka huɗu na fil, kodayake a aikace galibi suna yin da biyu. Wannan ƙirar ta juya ta zama mai dacewa sosai cewa na dogon lokaci ya zama daidaitaccen bayani ga kusan dukkanin kwamfyutocin. Ya wanzu shekaru da yawa, har sai an maye gurbin na'urorin PCMCIA masu cirewa da ƙarin mafita na zamani.

Nau'in Katin PC-Katin II da Nau'in Nau'in III

Yawancin kwamfyutocin yanzu suna da nau'in nau'in II guda ɗaya, kuma hakan ya isa. A bayyane yake, za a sayar da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci masu ramukan PC-Card Type II har sai an maye gurbin bas ɗin PCI da sabon PCI-Express, wanda ya dace da sabon ma'auni na katin faɗaɗa - ExpressCard, wanda ke da nasa nau'ikan abubuwan da ba su dace da PC ba. Kati da musaya.

Abubuwan da suka shafi Katin PC da ExpressCard

Katin Express vs. CardBus

Maganar nau'ikan nau'ikan katin PC-Card, wanda ba zai iya kasa ambaton yunƙurin Toshiba na ƙirƙirar wani nau'i nau'i ba - Nau'in IV. Kaurinsa ya kai mm 16.0. Samfurin tsarin bai yi nasara ba kuma babu wanda ya nema sai Toshiba. A cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka na wasu kamfanoni, babu wani wuri don wani ramin, wanda, haka ma, yana da irin wannan girman "marasa hannu". Nau'in IV da sauri ya mutu, bai bar komai ba sai sunan.

A cikin 1995, sabon ma'auni ya bayyana, PCMCIA 2.1, wanda ya dogara akan bas ɗin CardBus. A zahiri, bas ɗin PCI 32-bit ne mai mitar 33 MHz, amma ya dace da nau'in nau'in Katin PC. CardBus ya ba da damar na'urori guda biyu don sadarwa kai tsaye ba tare da takura na'urar ba, wanda ya kasance babban ƙari ga waɗannan shekarun. Sabbin katunan ba su dace da ramummuka 16-bit ba, amma wannan bai haifar da wata matsala ta musamman ba. Da sauri, duka katunan 16-bit da ramummuka 16-bit sun fadi daga amfani. CardBus Type II katunan sun riƙe dacewarsu har yau kuma suna da halaye masu kyau, alal misali, ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na 16 GB da saurin karantawa na 133X (20 MB / s) ba sa mamakin kowa yanzu. Gaskiya, waɗannan katunan ba su ƙarami ba.

Farkon masana'antar katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, PC-Cards kuma sun fara manyan abubuwan da ke faruwa a wannan masana'antar a yau. Don haka, a fagen kafofin watsa labaru masu cirewa, gasa tsakanin ma’adanin ma’adanin filasha da na’urorin kwamfuta ba ta tsaya a yau ba. Duk waɗannan shekarun, a gefen na ƙarshe, kawai ƙari shine ƙananan farashi na naúrar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Sauran ribobi na baya a cikin 1991 sun kasance a gefen ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya, wanda ba shi da sassa masu motsi. Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ta filasha ba ta da mahimmanci ga girgiza da rawar jiki, tana iya aiki fiye da yanayin zafi da zafi, kuma yana cinye ƙasa da ƙarfi fiye da tukwici. Tuni a kan misalin PC-Card, ya bayyana a sarari cewa walƙiya ya fi dacewa, kuma game da farashin kawai. Tun daga wannan lokacin, masu haɓaka ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar walƙiya suna ta ci gaba da aiki don sanya shi mai rahusa, amma wannan ba ya kai su ga nasara ta ƙarshe, tunda masu haɓaka rumbun kwamfyuta suma suna aiki a banza. Wannan gwagwarmaya har yanzu tana ci gaba, kuma mai yiwuwa za ta ci gaba har zuwa wani lokaci. Yana yiwuwa ba za a iya tantance wanda ya yi nasara a wannan arangamar ba, domin mahalartansa za su watse zuwa “nauyin nauyi” daban-daban: babu shakka katunan filasha za su fara jagoranci cikin ƙaramin girman, da faifan diski - cikin sauri.

Har ila yau, a daidai lokacin da PC-Card, an sami yanayin aiwatar da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da na'urorin I / O masu cirewa a cikin tsari iri ɗaya. Wannan hanyar tana da sakamako na musamman. Yawancin ma'auni na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya waɗanda ba su cika buƙatun zamani don ƙara ƙaranci sun kasance na kowa ba, tunda an aiwatar da abubuwa da yawa a cikin nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan, ban da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Ba za a iya cusa na'urorin I / O cikin ƙananan katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba. Ko da ya yi aiki a fasaha, zai zama da wahala a yi amfani da irin waɗannan na'urori. Don haka, tsoffin ƙa'idodi suna ci gaba da rayuwa. Yawancin na'urorin hannu suna sanye da madaidaitan ramummuka. Musamman, saboda wannan dalili, PC-Card da kansu ba su mutu ba tukuna. Wasu nau'ikan ramummuka har ma suna da damar zama daidaitattun haši don haɗa na'urori zuwa na'urorin hannu.

A ƙarshe, yana da kyau a lura da wani yanayin, misali na farko wanda shine PC-Card. Yana da game da al'adar amfani da ƙananan katunan a cikin manyan ramummuka na katin. Misali na farko shine nau'ikan nau'ikan katin-PC guda uku, amma abubuwa ba su tsaya nan ba. A baya a farkon 90s, ra'ayin ya kasance a bayyane cewa ko da katin da ƙananan tsayi da nisa za a iya haɗa shi ta hanyar PC-Card Ramin ta amfani da adaftar na musamman, kuma tare da wannan dubawa, mai sauƙi mai sauƙi. Don haka, a yau akwai adaftar PC-Card don duk ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwa na gama gari.

Adaftar Katin PC don Katin CompactFlash

A matsayin ƙarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya don kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci, katunan da ke buƙatar adaftar na musamman ba su da sha'awa kaɗan, saboda sun fi ɓata rai, kuma ƙaranci yana da tasiri sosai akan farashin. Koyaya, an samo sabon aikace-aikacen don irin waɗannan katunan - canja wurin bayanai. Cibiyoyin sadarwa ba su da kyau sosai, faifan floppy sun gaji da rashin dogaronsu, kuma ba kowane aljihu ya dace ba. Akwai buƙatar ƙaramin “faifan floppy disk ɗin da ba na injina ba”, saboda martanin da sabbin ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya suka bayyana. A gaskiya ma, wani sabon yanki ya bayyana a duniyar dijital wanda ya cancanci kulawa daban.

Tarihin katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya

Watakila, babu wani nau'in nau'ikan na'urori irin wannan, duk tarihin su zai kasance yana da alaƙa da tarihin masana'antar wayar hannu. Na'urorin hannu da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya sun bayyana kusan lokaci guda kuma tun daga lokacin suke haɓaka hannu da hannu, suna ci gaba da haɓaka haɓakar juna. Suna da alaƙa da juna ta yadda ta hanyar bin diddigin haɓakar katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, zaku iya sake duba kowane lokaci na tarihin wayar hannu ... wanda shine abin da za mu yi ƙoƙari mu yi.

Kashi na 1. Zamanin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka

Tarihi na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ya fara kusan 1989. Gabaɗaya, tarihin haɓakar haɓakar na'urorin wayar hannu ya fara a lokaci guda.

Lokaci ne mai wahala ga masana'antar wayar hannu. "Nauyi" a cikin ma'anar gaske - an auna nauyin na'urorin hannu a cikin kilogiram. A zahiri, a lokacin, ana fahimtar na'urorin tafi-da-gidanka a matsayin "kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka", a wasu kalmomi, kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Masu amfani sun fara sabawa da manufar "wayar hannu" sun fuskanci matsalolin farko na rayuwar dijital ta wayar hannu. Abin ban mamaki, farkon waɗannan matsalolin shine wahalar gyare-gyaren aikin minibas taksi na kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka.

Masu amfani sun fara sabawa da manufar “wayar hannu” sun fuskanci matsalolin farko na rayuwar dijital ta wayar hannu. Abin mamaki shine, farkon waɗannan matsalolin shine wahalar gyara kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka. Minibas Taksi sabis minibas taksi sabis .

Mutane sun biya makudan kudade domin samun damar daukar a cikin jaka wani dodo mai nauyi mai nauyin allo wanda ba a iya gane shi, da maballin kwamfuta mara dadi da kuma na’ura mai sarrafa kwamfuta na 386. A dabi'a, don kuɗin su suna son aƙalla kwanciyar hankali kaɗan. Ba sa son yawo a cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka tare da screwdriver ko jan shi zuwa ga masana a duk lokacin da suke buƙatar ƙara wani abu a cikin tsarinsa.

Ana buƙatar ƙara akai-akai. Babu isassun kayan aiki, kuma babu kebul na USB a lokacin. Ko da sau da yawa babu isasshen sarari akan rumbun kwamfutarka. A lokacin, ana ƙididdige juzu'i na rumbun kwamfyuta a megabytes ko kuma, a cikin matsanancin yanayi, dubun megabyte. Ba mamaki mutane da yawa sun rasa shi. Kowane mai kera kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka ya warware wannan matsala ta hanyarsa, babu ƙa'idodi, amma, a ka'idar, yawancin mafita sun sauko don amfani da na'urori na waje tare da rumbun kwamfyuta ko ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha. Tabbas, duk sun dace da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci ne kawai daga masana'anta, wanda ya fusata masu amfani. Ba zai iya ci gaba haka ba na dogon lokaci.

Lokaci na ƙarshen wannan rikici da farkon zamanin ma'auni na katin flash ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin kafa a 1989 na wata ƙungiya mai suna PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association). Wannan ƙungiyar ta haɗu da kamfanoni fiye da ɗari don ƙirƙirar ƙa'idodin kasa da kasa don fadada katunan, kuma ta yi nasara. A wancan lokacin, kawai mai fafatawa ga PCMCIA shine JEIDA na Jafananci zalla, amma yakin ma'auni bai yi aiki ba. Tuni a cikin 1991, waɗannan ƙungiyoyi sun fitar da sabbin nau'ikan ka'idodin su, JEIDA 4.1 da PCMCIA 2.0, waɗanda gaba ɗaya suke kuma suna wakiltar ma'auni ɗaya, mai suna PC-Card.

Ma'aunin ya dogara ne akan sabon tsarin gine-gine, maimakon PCMCIA wanda ba a san shi ba (a wannan lokacin ya tsaya ga "Peripheral Component MicroChannel Interconnect Architecture"). Ya tanadar don "zafi" toshe katunan fadadawa, wato, don toshe katin, ba lallai ba ne a kashe kwamfutar. A karkashin wannan gine-gine, an samar da katunan a cikin nau'i nau'i uku: Nau'in I, Nau'in II da Nau'in III. Dukkan abubuwa ukun suna da tsayi da faɗi ɗaya (85.6x54.0 mm), amma kauri daban-daban da adadin lambobin sadarwa daban-daban.

Da farko, an ƙera katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar filasha don nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i nau'i).wanda ke da jere guda na lambobin sadarwa da kauri na 3.3mm. Rubuta i Katunan da za a iya sakawa a cikin nau'ikan da suka dace da na zamana da sauran kayan masana'antu, amma nau'in iii bai ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii ba, haka kwamfyutocin III sun ba da izinin amfani da nau'in ii da aka yi, p> A waje da littattafan rubutu, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'i nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau’in nau’in nau’in rubutu) ba shi da wani fa’ida fiye da mafi kauri (5.0 mm) Nau’in II. Katunan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan biyu sun dace daidai a cikin aljihu, kuma babu ƙimar hoto na bakin ciki a waɗannan shekarun. Amma Nau'in II yana da layuka biyu na fil kuma yana iya tallafawa musaya masu 32-bit, ban da 16-bit, kamar Nau'in I. A sakamakon haka, nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in I nau'in ya sami raguwa kaɗan.

PCMCIA na nufin Nau'in II don abubuwan I/O kamar modem da katunan cibiyar sadarwa, amma babu wani abu a cikin ma'auni da zai hana yin amfani da wannan nau'in nau'i don katunan filasha. Girman girman katin ya ba da damar samun adadin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya mai girma, wanda ke da mahimmanci sosai, saboda Nau'in Katin PC na farko, mafi yawan adadin megabyte ɗaya ne kawai. A ka'ida, ƙirar 32-bit yakamata ya ba da fa'ida a cikin saurin karantawa / rubuta, amma ya ɗauki shekaru kafin ya fara aiki. Tsawon shekaru da yawa, abubuwan da ke ƙayyade wurin zabar ma'auni sune girman katin da kuma yawan ramummukan da suka dace.

Tabbatacce, Masu zanen wuta na katin Flash din za su juya hankalinsu ga nau'in nau'ikan III tare da karfin 10.5, amma a lokacin, Flash Babu makawa mai wahala tare da rumbun kwamfutarka. Bambance-bambancen farashin ya mamaye duk abubuwan da aka samu daga amincin ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya da ƙarancin ƙarfinsa. Don haka, Nau'in III ya kasance sifar sigar ma'aunin tukwici mai cirewa, kamar yadda aka tsara tun farko a PCMCIA. Akwai keɓancewa, amma sun kasance kaɗan kuma nesa tsakanin na'urorin I/O.

Ramin Nau'in Katin PC na III yana da ƙira ta asali. A lokaci guda, ya kasance nau'i-nau'i na nau'i na II, wanda ke kusa da juna, ko da ba tare da rabuwa ba. Katunan Nau'in III na iya amfani da duk layuka huɗu na fil, kodayake a aikace galibi suna yin da biyu. Wannan ƙirar ta juya ta zama mai dacewa sosai cewa na dogon lokaci ya zama daidaitaccen bayani ga kusan dukkanin kwamfyutocin. Ya wanzu shekaru da yawa, har sai an maye gurbin na'urorin PCMCIA masu cirewa da ƙarin mafita na zamani.

Nau'in Katin PC-Katin II da Nau'in Nau'in III

Yawancin kwamfyutocin yanzu suna da nau'in nau'in II guda ɗaya, kuma hakan ya isa. A bayyane yake, za a sayar da kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci masu ramukan PC-Card Type II har sai an maye gurbin bas ɗin PCI da sabon PCI-Express, wanda ya dace da sabon ma'auni na katin faɗaɗa - ExpressCard, wanda ke da nasa nau'ikan abubuwan da ba su dace da PC ba. Kati da musaya.

Abubuwan da suka shafi Katin PC da ExpressCard

Katin Express vs. CardBus

Maganar nau'ikan nau'ikan katin PC-Card, wanda ba zai iya kasa ambaton yunƙurin Toshiba na ƙirƙirar wani nau'i nau'i ba - Nau'in IV. Kaurinsa ya kai mm 16.0. Samfurin tsarin bai yi nasara ba kuma babu wanda ya nema sai Toshiba. A cikin kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka na wasu kamfanoni, babu wani wuri don wani ramin, wanda, haka ma, yana da irin wannan girman "marasa hannu". Nau'in IV da sauri ya mutu, bai bar komai ba sai sunan.

A cikin 1995, sabon ma'auni ya bayyana, PCMCIA 2.1, wanda ya dogara akan bas ɗin CardBus. A zahiri, bas ɗin PCI 32-bit ne mai mitar 33 MHz, amma ya dace da nau'in nau'in Katin PC. CardBus ya ba da damar na'urori guda biyu don sadarwa kai tsaye ba tare da takura na'urar ba, wanda ya kasance babban ƙari ga waɗannan shekarun. Sabbin katunan ba su dace da ramummuka 16-bit ba, amma wannan bai haifar da wata matsala ta musamman ba. Da sauri, duka katunan 16-bit da ramummuka 16-bit sun fadi daga amfani. CardBus Type II katunan sun riƙe dacewarsu har yau kuma suna da halaye masu kyau, alal misali, ƙarfin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya na 16 GB da saurin karantawa na 133X (20 MB / s) ba sa mamakin kowa yanzu. Gaskiya, waɗannan katunan ba su ƙarami ba.

Farkon masana'antar katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya, PC-Cards kuma sun fara manyan abubuwan da ke faruwa a wannan masana'antar a yau. Don haka, a fagen kafofin watsa labaru masu cirewa, gasa tsakanin ma’adanin ma’adanin filasha da na’urorin kwamfuta ba ta tsaya a yau ba. Duk waɗannan shekarun, a gefen na ƙarshe, kawai ƙari shine ƙananan farashi na naúrar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Sauran ribobi na baya a cikin 1991 sun kasance a gefen ƙwaƙwalwar walƙiya, wanda ba shi da sassa masu motsi. Ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa ta filasha ba ta da mahimmanci ga girgiza da rawar jiki, tana iya aiki fiye da yanayin zafi da zafi, kuma yana cinye ƙasa da ƙarfi fiye da tukwici. Tuni a kan misalin PC-Card, ya bayyana a sarari cewa walƙiya ya fi dacewa, kuma game da farashin kawai. Tun daga wannan lokacin, masu haɓaka ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar walƙiya suna ta ci gaba da aiki don sanya shi mai rahusa, amma wannan ba ya kai su ga nasara ta ƙarshe, tunda masu haɓaka rumbun kwamfyuta suma suna aiki a banza. Wannan gwagwarmaya har yanzu tana ci gaba, kuma mai yiwuwa za ta ci gaba har zuwa wani lokaci. Yana yiwuwa ba za a iya tantance wanda ya yi nasara a wannan arangamar ba, domin mahalartansa za su watse zuwa “nauyin nauyi” daban-daban: babu shakka katunan filasha za su fara jagoranci cikin ƙaramin girman, da faifan diski - cikin sauri.

Har ila yau, a daidai lokacin da PC-Card, an sami yanayin aiwatar da katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da na'urorin I / O masu cirewa a cikin tsari iri ɗaya. Wannan hanyar tana da sakamako na musamman. Yawancin ma'auni na katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya waɗanda ba su cika buƙatun zamani don ƙara ƙaranci sun kasance na kowa ba, tunda an aiwatar da abubuwa da yawa a cikin nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan, ban da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Ba za a iya cusa na'urorin I / O cikin ƙananan katunan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya ba. Ko da ya yi aiki a fasaha, zai zama da wahala a yi amfani da irin waɗannan na'urori. Don haka, tsoffin ƙa'idodi suna ci gaba da rayuwa. Yawancin na'urorin hannu suna sanye da madaidaitan ramummuka. Musamman, saboda wannan dalili, PC-Card da kansu ba su mutu ba tukuna. Wasu nau'ikan ramummuka har ma suna da damar zama daidaitattun haši don haɗa na'urori zuwa na'urorin hannu.

A ƙarshe, yana da kyau a lura da wani yanayin, misali na farko wanda shine PC-Card. Yana da game da al'adar amfani da ƙananan katunan a cikin manyan ramummuka na katin. Misali na farko shine nau'ikan nau'ikan katin-PC guda uku, amma abubuwa ba su tsaya nan ba. A baya a farkon 90s, ra'ayin ya kasance a bayyane cewa ko da katin da ƙananan tsayi da nisa za a iya haɗa shi ta hanyar PC-Card Ramin ta amfani da adaftar na musamman, kuma tare da wannan dubawa, mai sauƙi mai sauƙi. Don haka, a yau akwai adaftar PC-Card don duk ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwa na gama gari.

Adaftar Katin PC don Katin CompactFlash

A matsayin ƙarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya don kwamfyutocin kwamfyutoci, katunan da ke buƙatar adaftar na musamman ba su da sha'awa kaɗan, saboda sun fi ɓata rai, kuma ƙaranci yana da tasiri sosai akan farashin. Koyaya, an samo sabon aikace-aikacen don irin waɗannan katunan - canja wurin bayanai. Cibiyoyin sadarwa ba su da kyau sosai, faifan floppy sun gaji da rashin dogaronsu, kuma ba kowane aljihu ya dace ba. Akwai buƙatar ƙaramin “faifan floppy disk ɗin da ba na injina ba”, saboda martanin da sabbin ƙa'idodin katin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya suka bayyana. A gaskiya ma, wani sabon yanki ya bayyana a duniyar dijital wanda ya cancanci kulawa daban.