Tarihin sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus: jiya da yau

Kamar yadda kuka sani, sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta bayyana a Rasha a farkon shekarun 90s. Shin ko kun san cewa, alal misali, a Jamus a wancan lokacin an sami sauyi cikin sauƙi daga cibiyar sadarwa ta ƙasa ta uku zuwa ta huɗu, kuma cibiyoyin sadarwa guda uku na farko analog ne? Cewa wayoyin hannu na farko ba su kai girman bulo ba, sai dai girman akwati? Shin kun san inda aka haɓaka manufar katin SIM azaman mai gano masu biyan kuɗi na musamman kuma aka fara amfani da shi? Ba? To, sai ku kasance tare da mu, za a sami abubuwa masu ban sha'awa da yawa a cikin wannan rubutu.

Kashi na ɗaya: Analog Networks

A-Netz

Tarihi na ci gaban sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus (kuma muna la'akari da Jamus kawai) ya zama sananne ga yawancin ƙasashen yamma. Ya fara a 1958. Deutsche Bundespost – a lokacin ne ma’aikatar ta Jamus ke da rinjaye a kan ƙirƙira, bunƙasa da kuma gudanar da dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa a Jamus. A karkashinta, tarwatsa hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu na gida da suka wanzu har zuwa lokacin sun hade su zuwa wani abin da ake kira. "Cibiyar sadarwar rediyo ta wayar hannu ta jama'a", wacce aka fi sani da "Autotelefon-Netz" ko kuma a sauƙaƙe "A-Netz". Don haka, a ƙarshen 50s, an ƙirƙiri babbar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a duniya. A cikin shekaru 10, ya rufe kusan kashi 80% na ƙasar Jamus. Ya kasance mai shimfiɗa don kiran irin wannan wayar da gaske "wayar hannu": dodanni na wancan lokacin sun kai kilogiram 16 kuma sun kasance, a matsayin mai mulkin, an gina su a cikin mota. Amma, duk da haka, a karon farko, masu biyan kuɗi suna da damar da za su gudanar da tattaunawa ta wayar tarho, suna barin harabar ko rumfar tarho.Jin daɗi, ba shakka, ba shine mafi arha ba don haka ba ga kowa ba. Bayan haka, farashin irin wannan na'urar ya kasance kusan 15,000 DM. Don kwatanta: "Volkswagen Beetle", mafi yawan akwati wanda aka shagaltar da na'urar kanta, sa'an nan kudin 5000 DM. Amma ko da waɗannan 5000 DM yakamata a yi la'akari da ƙarin farashi don sadarwar wayar hannu. Gaskiyar ita ce, matsalar rayuwar baturi, wanda ya saba da yawancin masu wayoyin zamani, ya wanzu har ma a lokacin. Na'urorin sun kasance masu cin abinci sosai har tattaunawar tarho daga motar an yi su ne kawai da https://cars45.co.ke / listing/mazda/cx-7/2015 inji. In ba haka ba, baturin motar ya zauna a nan take. A cikin mafi munin yanayi, mai amfani ya sami sake dawowa mai kyau: baturin ya mutu, kuma ba zai yiwu a kira da kiran injin mota daga kulob din motar ba, saboda baturin ya mutu.

Wannan shine yadda tsarin sadarwa ta wayar hannu ya kasance a cikin 60s.

. don haka na'urar kanta tana cikin gangar jikin limousine mai wakiltar

Akwai wasu hane-hane: alal misali, mai kiran ya san inda yuwuwar mai magana da shi yake. Kowane kilomita 50, masu biyan kuɗi a cikin "cell" suna da lambar tasu, kamar ta birni a yau. Idan mai biyan kuɗi ya bar iyakar tantanin halitta, haɗin ya katse kuma dole ne a sake kiran "matar" - eh, babu PBX sannan ko da a gani. Ma'aikatan tarho 600 ne suka gudanar da wannan aiki. A duk tsawon lokacin wanzuwarsa, hanyar sadarwar tana da matsakaicin masu biyan kuɗi 10,784. Tuni shekaru goma bayan ƙaddamar da shi, ba tare da bege ba ya yi yawa. Babban haɓakar kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata daga 65 DM zuwa 270 DM, wanda aka yi a cikin 1971, bai taimaka sosai ba. Ya bayyana a fili cewa A-Netz ba zai iya jure yawan kwararar masu neman ba. An yanke shawarar ci gaba da haɓaka hanyar sadarwa ta wayar tafi-da-gidanka ta gaba, mafi kyawun zamani, tare da la'akari da gogewar da aka tara a wancan lokacin. A-Netz ya tafi layi a cikin 1977, yana wanzuwa aƙalla shekaru goma sha tara. Tun shekaru biyar da suka wuce, ta riga ta yi takara da magajiya.

TeKaDe wayar hannu, samfurin B 72 (1961-1967)

Masu kera na'urori don masu amfani da ƙarshen sun kasance duka Becker, Bosch, Philips da Siemens, waɗanda suka rayu har zuwa yau, da kuma sanannen Telefunken, waɗanda suka riga sun mutu a Bose ko kuma masu fafatawa sun haɗiye su, haka kuma. TeKaDe, Lorenz da SEL. Af, a cikin dakunan gwaje-gwaje na Telefunken da ke Hannover ne aka samar da tsarin talabijin na PAL analog mai launi a cikin 1963, wanda daga baya ya yadu a kusan dukkanin Yammacin Turai, amma wannan wani labari ne.

Eh, na kusan manta - wata hujja mai ban sha'awa: tun farkon kasuwancin A-Netz, masu biyan kuɗi na iya amfani da hanyar sadarwar ba kawai don sadarwar sauti ba, har ma don aika fax! Gaskiya ne, don wannan, ya zama dole don siyan mai canzawa na musamman tare da na'urar daidaitawa ta musamman ban da akwati-wayar kuma, a zahiri, mafi girman abin da aka makala tare da sunan girman kai "Siemens Hellfax KF108". Saboda haka, ainihin kalmar "motsi" dangane da duk wannan kayan aiki ya zama dan kadan bai dace ba: 42 kilogiram na nauyi da girma na akwatunan giya hudu (kuma a cikin Jamus tsawon ƙarni, naúrar ƙarar ita ce, kun zato shi, akwatin giya kawai) kamar an yi ishara. Tabbas, wannan gaskiyar ta iyakance da'irar masu amfani da wannan mu'ujiza ta aikin injiniya - galibi irin waɗannan nau'ikan wayoyin hannu sun kasance wani wuri a cikin tirela na kwantena, ko a cikin ɗakunan talbijin na hannu.

Fax ta wayar hannu, samfurin Siemens Helfax KF108. Gudun watsawa na shafi ɗaya a cikin tsarin A5: Minti 3. An riga an samo shi cikin launuka biyu: baki mai ra'ayin mazan jiya da fari na hipster

B-Netz

Mataki na gaba na ci gaba shine abin da ake kira. "B-Netz" ko "Network B". Kamar wanda ya gabace ta, kamfanin TeKaDe na Jamus ne ya haɓaka shi kuma ya sanya shi aiki. An gudanar da gwaji a cikin bazara na 1971 a Hannover Industrial Fair (Hannover Messe). A shekara daga baya, cibiyar sadarwa da aka canjawa wuri zuwa kasuwanci yanayin, wanda dade fiye da shekaru ashirin, har zuwa Maris 1995. Akwai abubuwa masu kyau da yawa. Abu na farko da ya kama idon ku ko, idan kuna so, a cikin kunnuwanku: matasa masu amfani da wayar tarho sun ɓace - ya zama mai yiwuwa a kafa hanyar sadarwa tare da masu biyan kuɗi na wayar hannu da masu biyan kuɗi a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar birane. Wannan yana ba da izinin rage lokacin haɗin yanar gizo na masu biyan kuɗi - a cikin A-Netz wannan tsari ya ɗauki kusan mintuna biyu! Bugu da kari, adadin masu amfani da shi ya kusan ninka sau uku. Ko da a lokacin, iyakance yawo zuwa Austria, Netherlands da Luxembourg sun bayyana. Amma sabuwar hanyar sadarwa har yanzu ba ta iya kawar da wasu daga cikin "kullun" na magabata. Don haka, alal misali, mai kira dole ne ya san wurin da mai yiwuwa ya shiga. Don haka, an raba dukkan yankin Jamus zuwa yankuna 150 (kwayoyin halitta), kowannensu ya kai kilomita 15 a diamita.Don isa ga mai biyan kuɗi wanda yake, a ce, a cikin yankin Hannover, an fara buga lambar yanki (0511), sannan lambobin "0" da "5" (lambar sadarwar wayar hannu), sannan kuma lambar wayar hannu kanta. Idan ɗaya daga cikin masu biyan kuɗi yayin zance ya yi tafiya a wajen cell ɗinsa, an yanke tattaunawar kuma dole ne ku buga lamba tare da sabon lamba. Wani “kumburi” shi ne gaskiyar cewa har yanzu ana yin watsa muryar ta hanyar analog kuma kusan a bayyane. Rufewa yana yiwuwa tare da kayan aiki na musamman da tsada sosai. An yi amfani da shi a lokuta da ba kasafai ba, misali, ta 'yan siyasa ko ayyuka na musamman.

Farashin saitin tarho a cikin sabuwar hanyar sadarwa sun yi daidai da na saitin A-Netz. A cikin 1972, sabuwar “akwati” mai wayar hannu da dialer ta kai kimanin 12,000 DM. Amma ga waɗanda suka sami damar biyan kuɗin biyan kuɗi na 270 DM (kuma wannan ba tare da biyan kuɗi a minti ɗaya ba don kiran kansu), wannan adadin bai kasance babban cikas ba.

B-Netz. Motar ta yi kama da zamani, kuma wayar tana da faifan maɓalli

TE-KA-DE BSA33. Akwatin akwatin har yanzu yana cikin akwati, wayar hannu tana tsakanin kujerun, an gina dialer a cikin dashboard

B-Netz. Kyawawan jin dadi

A cikin 1986, hanyar sadarwar ta kai iyakar masu biyan kuɗi 27,000. An yi hasashen hakan tun da farko, saboda haka, a cikin watan Agustan 1985, an ƙaddamar da wata hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu zuwa lokacin gwaji, wanda, ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba, kawai ana kiransa "C-Netz".

C-Netz

Oda don haɓakawa da aiwatar da sabuwar hanyar sadarwar wayar tafi da gidanka ga sabon shiga cikin wannan kasuwancin - damuwar Siemens. Me yasa, duk da shekaru talatin na gwaninta na aikin haɗin gwiwa, tsohon abokin tarayya, kamfanin TeKaDe, an ƙetare shi, yanzu, mai yiwuwa, babu wanda ya sani. C-Netz ya zama cibiyar sadarwa ta analog ta uku kuma ta ƙarshe. An tura shi a cikin Jamus, Portugal da Afirka ta Kudu kawai, wanda ya hana yawo na duniya kuma, a ƙarshe, ya zama abin ƙarfafa don ƙirƙirar hanyoyin sadarwa na ƙarni na biyu. Amma gaskiyar magana ta kasance cewa Siemens ya haɓaka kuma ya ƙaddamar da shi a watan Mayu 1986 zuwa kasuwancin kasuwanci mafi zamani kuma mafi aminci na hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a lokacinsa.

Idan aka kwatanta da magabata, C-Netz ya sami nasara mai ban mamaki, wanda ya fito daga abubuwa da yawa. Don haka, alal misali, ya ba da kusan cikakkiyar ɗaukar hoto na ƙasar Jamus. An cimma wannan ta hanyar gina nau'ikan sel guda biyu: ƙanana da babba. abin da ake kira. manyan sel masu radiyo na kilomita 15 zuwa 20 sun rufe manyan yankuna: fili mai faɗi, ƙarancin yawan jama'a. Ƙananan sel, waɗanda ke da radius na kilomita 2-3 kawai, sun ba da ɗaukar hoto don ƙarin wuraren birane, da kuma wuraren da ke da ƙasa mai rikitarwa. A lokacin ƙaddamar da shi, hanyar sadarwar ta ƙunshi jimillar sel manya da ƙanana 175. A cikin shekaru uku yana da masu biyan kuɗi sama da 98,000 a Jamus da sama da masu biyan kuɗi 2,000 a Yammacin Berlin. Tun kafin tsakiyar shekarun 1990, C-Netz ya kasance ba makawa a zahiri a yankunan karkara da bakin teku na Arewa da Tekun Baltic a arewacin Jamus. Bugu da kari, cibiyar sadarwa ta dade da zama daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa a jiragen kamun kifi a bakin teku.

Muhimmin ma'auni wanda ya ba wa C-Netz damar samun farin jini cikin sauri shine gabatarwar abin da ake kira. katunan masu amfani. Daga nan ne kafafun katunan SIM na zamani suke girma! Katin mai amfani ya canza ID na hardware. Kafin wannan, mai shiga ba ya rabuwa da motarsa, amma yanzu ya samu damar yin amfani da wayoyi da yawa masu karamin kati daya kacal tare da igiyar maganadisu da ke shiga cikin jaka.

Wannan shine yadda babbar-kakar-kakar-kakar SIM ta yi kama, girman katin kiredit

Har yanzu kwafi na farko sun yi amfani da tsiri na maganadisu, amma a cikin 1988 an fitar da katunan matasan farko tare da haɗaɗɗen microcontroller ( guntu )

Duk ɓangarorin SIM ɗin hybrid tare da ɗigon maganadisu da guntu

Ga shi - katin SIM na gaske

Sabuwar sigar katin SIM na "C-Tel" (kamar yadda ake kiran C-Netz yanzu). Mini-SIM a bayyane yake. Na gaba, ƙarni na biyu na cibiyoyin sadarwa da farko sun yi amfani da wannan ma'auni

Daga ma'auni na farko - SIM-card, wanda ya ba da damar kawar da ɗaurin mai biyan kuɗi zuwa na'urar - na biyu, watakila mafi mahimmanci, ya biyo baya: masu biyan kuɗi a ƙarshe sun zama abin isa. Kuma ko da wane yanki ne kasar suka kasance. Kowane mai katin biyan kuɗi yana da lambar wayarsa ta sirri tare da lambar shiga guda ɗaya da aka keɓe don wayoyin hannu (0161). Bukatar dogon bincike na mai biyan kuɗin da ake so ya ɓace. A ƙarshe, sadarwa ta zama wayar hannu ta gaske. Wannan ma'auni ne, a cewar masana, ya ba da kwarin guiwa ga masana'antar sadarwa ta wayar hannu da kuma ba ta damar shiga kasuwar hada-hadar jama'a.

Kuma wannan shine yadda wayoyin hannu na farko suka yi kama. Model "BOSCH Handy C9". Tuni a cikin launuka biyu: launin toka da anthracite. Tun daga wannan lokacin, kalmar "Handy" ta zama sunan gama gari a cikin Jamusanci, da kyau, wani abu kamar "kwafi" a cikin Rashanci

Kuma, a ƙarshe, siffa ta uku mai kisa ita ce abin da ake kira. "handover" - canja wurin zama na masu biyan kuɗi daga wannan tashar tushe zuwa wani. Haka kuma, an aiwatar da tsarin wannan canja wuri da inganci wanda har yanzu C-Netz ya kasance ba a iya samunsa a cikin wannan siga. Ko da a cikin sauri sosai, misali, lokacin tafiya a cikin jirgin kasa na ICE express jiragen kasa (ƙarni na uku wanda nau'in nau'in Sapsan ne), kusan babu gibi.

An shigar da wayoyin tarho na katin guda dubu daidai a cikin jiragen kasa na misalin Jamusanci na Railways na Rasha - Deutsche Bahn: 400 a cikin jiragen kasa na ICE da kuma wani 600 a cikin abin da ake kira. InterRegio da InterCity sun kasance jiragen kasa masu sauri masu nisa waɗanda akai-akai ke tafiya tsakanin manyan biranen fasaha, kuɗi da siyasa kamar su Frankfurt, Munich, Hamburg, Hannover da Berlin. Wannan nau'in sadarwar wayar hannu, mara tsada, dacewa kuma abin dogaro sosai, ya shahara sosai, kuma ba lallai ba ne a tsakanin fasinjojin aji na farko masu tsada kawai. Bayan haka, a Jamus, tare da ingantaccen tsarin hanyar sadarwa na jiragen kasa masu sauri, ba kawai 'yan kasuwa da 'yan siyasa ba ne kawai suke amfani da jiragen kasa (musamman a lokacin yakin neman zabe), har ma da talakawan da sukan yi aiki dubun ko ma daruruwan kilomita daga gida.

Wannan shi ne abin da katunan biyan kuɗi a cikin jiragen ƙasa na Deutsche Bahn suka yi kama a cikin 90s

Duk wanda ke da katin waya zai iya amfani da wayar tarho a cikin jiragen kasa. Kuna iya siyan shi a kowane kiosk tasha a duk faɗin ƙasar, kuma, ba shakka, daga mai gudanar da kan jirgin. An yi amfani da katunan, a cikin ƙungiyoyin 6 DM da 12 DM.

Bagaren katin kira don amfani a cikin wayoyin biyan kuɗi na Deutsche Bahn, kamar yadda tambarin Deutsche Bahn da tambarin "C" suka tabbatar a cikin tambarin Telekom

Da farko, an tsara C-Netz don masu biyan kuɗi 100,000, amma an kai wannan iyaka a ƙarshen 1988. Ƙarfin ya fara ƙaruwa da sauri, wanda ya sa ya yiwu a ƙara yawan abubuwan da ke cikin hanyar sadarwa. A cikin 1993, shekaru biyu bayan ƙaddamar da magajinsa, adadin masu biyan kuɗi na C-Netz ko C-Tel (cibiyar sadarwar ta sami sabon suna a 1996) ya kai 800,000. Yayin da adadin masu biyan kuɗin sadarwar ke ƙaruwa cikin sauri, farashin amfani da shi kuma yana faɗuwa cikin sauri. Matsakaicin kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata na 120 DM a lokacin ƙaddamar da hanyar sadarwar ya faɗi zuwa 19 DM a bara.

C-Tel an fara shirin wanzuwa har sai aƙalla 2008. Amma a cikin 2001, DeTeMobil, wanda shine sunan tsohon reshen Deutsche Post a wancan lokacin, daga baya aka sake masa suna T-Mobile, zai fito fili. Dangane da wannan bangon, cibiyar sadarwar wayar hannu ta analog ta yi kama da ba a iya bayyanawa kuma tana iya tsoratar da masu hannun jari. Saboda haka, an yanke shawarar jawo sauran abokan ciniki zuwa sabon hanyar sadarwa na D1 (Zan yi magana game da shi a cikin labarin na gaba), kuma a kashe C-Tel kanta, wanda har yanzu yana da aminci kuma yana da nisa daga rashin riba. Wannan ya faru daidai a ƙarshen ƙarni na 20, a ranar 30 ga Disamba, 2000. Wani abin da ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin makomar sabuwar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta analog ita ce, ba ta goyan bayan irin waɗannan abubuwa masu fa'ida ga ma'aikaci kamar gajeriyar lambobi, waɗanda ke bayyana a cikin cibiyoyin sadarwa na gaba.

Kamfanin sadarwa na Jamus ya shiga cikin karni na 21, inda ya yi nasarar barin ƙarni na farko na hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu a cikin 20th da suka gabata. A wancan lokacin, cibiyoyin sadarwa na zamani na zamani na biyu sun riga sun wanzu a cikin ƙasar lokaci ɗaya. Zan ba da labari mai ban sha'awa na asalinsu da samuwarsu a kashi na biyu na labarina.

Tarihin sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus: jiya da yau

Kamar yadda kuka sani, sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta bayyana a Rasha a farkon shekarun 90s. Shin ko kun san cewa, alal misali, a Jamus a wancan lokacin an sami sauyi cikin sauƙi daga cibiyar sadarwa ta ƙasa ta uku zuwa ta huɗu, kuma cibiyoyin sadarwa guda uku na farko analog ne? Cewa wayoyin hannu na farko ba su kai girman bulo ba, sai dai girman akwati? Shin kun san inda aka haɓaka manufar katin SIM azaman mai gano masu biyan kuɗi na musamman kuma aka fara amfani da shi? Ba? To, sai ku kasance tare da mu, za a sami abubuwa masu ban sha'awa da yawa a cikin wannan rubutu.

Kashi na ɗaya: Analog Networks

A-Netz

Tarihi na ci gaban sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus (kuma muna la'akari da Jamus kawai) ya zama sananne ga yawancin ƙasashen yamma. Ya fara a 1958. Deutsche Bundespost – a lokacin ne ma’aikatar ta Jamus ke da rinjaye a kan ƙirƙira, bunƙasa da kuma gudanar da dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa a Jamus. A karkashinta, tarwatsa hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu na gida da suka wanzu har zuwa lokacin sun hade su zuwa wani abin da ake kira. "Cibiyar sadarwar rediyo ta wayar hannu ta jama'a", wacce aka fi sani da "Autotelefon-Netz" ko kuma a sauƙaƙe "A-Netz". Don haka, a ƙarshen 50s, an ƙirƙiri babbar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a duniya. A cikin shekaru 10, ya rufe kusan kashi 80% na ƙasar Jamus.Ya kasance mai shimfiɗa don kiran irin wannan wayar da gaske "wayar hannu": dodanni na wancan lokacin sun kai kilogiram 16 kuma sun kasance, a matsayin mai mulkin, an gina su a cikin mota. Amma, duk da haka, a karon farko, masu biyan kuɗi suna da damar da za su gudanar da tattaunawa ta wayar tarho, suna barin harabar ko rumfar tarho. Jin daɗi, ba shakka, ba shine mafi arha ba don haka ba ga kowa ba. Bayan haka, farashin irin wannan na'urar ya kasance kusan 15,000 DM. Don kwatanta: "Volkswagen Beetle", mafi yawan akwati wanda aka shagaltar da na'urar kanta, sa'an nan kudin 5000 DM. Amma waɗannan 5000 DM ya kamata kuma a ɗauke su azaman ƙarin farashi don sadarwar wayar hannu. Gaskiyar ita ce, matsalar rayuwar baturi, wanda ya saba da yawancin masu wayoyin zamani, ya wanzu har ma a lokacin. Na'urorin sun kasance masu cin abinci sosai har tattaunawar tarho daga motar an yi su ne kawai da https://cars45.co.ke / listing/mazda/cx-7/2015 inji. In ba haka ba, baturin motar ya zauna a nan take. A cikin mafi munin yanayi, mai amfani ya sami sake dawowa mai kyau: baturin ya mutu, kuma ba zai yiwu a kira da kiran injin mota daga kulob din motar ba, saboda baturin ya mutu.

Wannan shine yadda tsarin sadarwa ta wayar hannu ya kasance a cikin 60s.

. don haka na'urar kanta tana cikin gangar jikin limousine mai wakiltar

Akwai wasu hane-hane: alal misali, mai kiran ya san inda yuwuwar mai magana da shi yake. Kowane kilomita 50, masu biyan kuɗi a cikin "cell" suna da lambar tasu, kamar ta birni a yau. Idan mai biyan kuɗi ya bar iyakar tantanin halitta, haɗin ya katse kuma dole ne a sake kiran "matar" - eh, babu PBX sannan ko da a gani. Ma'aikatan tarho 600 ne suka gudanar da wannan aiki. A duk tsawon lokacin wanzuwarsa, hanyar sadarwar tana da matsakaicin masu biyan kuɗi 10,784. Tuni shekaru goma bayan ƙaddamar da shi, ba tare da bege ba ya yi yawa. Babban haɓakar kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata daga 65 DM zuwa 270 DM, wanda aka yi a cikin 1971, bai taimaka sosai ba. Ya bayyana a fili cewa A-Netz ba zai iya jure yawan kwararar masu neman ba. An yanke shawarar ci gaba da haɓaka hanyar sadarwa ta wayar tafi-da-gidanka ta gaba, mafi kyawun zamani, tare da la'akari da gogewar da aka tara a wancan lokacin. A-Netz ya tafi layi a cikin 1977, yana wanzuwa aƙalla shekaru goma sha tara. Tun shekaru biyar da suka wuce, ta riga ta yi takara da magajiya.

TeKaDe wayar hannu, samfurin B 72 (1961-1967)

Masu kera na'urori don masu amfani da ƙarshen sun kasance duka Becker, Bosch, Philips da Siemens, waɗanda suka rayu har zuwa yau, da kuma sanannen Telefunken, waɗanda suka riga sun mutu a Bose ko kuma masu fafatawa sun haɗiye su, haka kuma. TeKaDe, Lorenz da SEL. Af, a cikin dakunan gwaje-gwaje na Telefunken da ke Hannover ne aka samar da tsarin talabijin na PAL analog mai launi a cikin 1963, wanda daga baya ya yadu a kusan dukkanin Yammacin Turai, amma wannan wani labari ne.

Eh, na kusan manta - wata hujja mai ban sha'awa: tun farkon kasuwancin A-Netz, masu biyan kuɗi na iya amfani da hanyar sadarwar ba kawai don sadarwar sauti ba, har ma don aika fax! Gaskiya ne, don wannan, ya zama dole don siyan mai canzawa na musamman tare da na'urar daidaitawa ta musamman ban da akwati-wayar kuma, a zahiri, mafi girman abin da aka makala tare da sunan girman kai "Siemens Hellfax KF108". Saboda haka, ainihin kalmar "motsi" dangane da duk wannan kayan aiki ya zama dan kadan bai dace ba: 42 kilogiram na nauyi da girma na akwatunan giya hudu (kuma a cikin Jamus tsawon ƙarni, naúrar ƙarar ita ce, kun zato shi, akwatin giya kawai) kamar an yi ishara. Tabbas, wannan gaskiyar ta iyakance da'irar masu amfani da wannan mu'ujiza ta aikin injiniya - galibi irin waɗannan nau'ikan wayoyin hannu sun kasance wani wuri a cikin tirela na kwantena, ko a cikin ɗakunan talbijin na hannu.

Fax ta wayar hannu, samfurin Siemens Helfax KF108. Gudun watsawa na shafi ɗaya a cikin tsarin A5: Minti 3. An riga an samo shi cikin launuka biyu: baki mai ra'ayin mazan jiya da fari na hipster

B-Netz

Mataki na gaba na ci gaba shine abin da ake kira. "B-Netz" ko "Network B". Kamar wanda ya gabace ta, kamfanin TeKaDe na Jamus ne ya haɓaka shi kuma ya sanya shi aiki. An gudanar da gwaji a cikin bazara na 1971 a Hannover Industrial Fair (Hannover Messe). A shekara daga baya, cibiyar sadarwa da aka canjawa wuri zuwa kasuwanci yanayin, wanda dade fiye da shekaru ashirin, har zuwa Maris 1995. Akwai abubuwa masu kyau da yawa. Abu na farko da ya kama idon ku ko, idan kuna so, a cikin kunnuwanku: matasa masu amfani da wayar tarho sun ɓace - ya zama mai yiwuwa a kafa hanyar sadarwa tare da masu biyan kuɗi na wayar hannu da masu biyan kuɗi a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar birane. Wannan yana ba da izinin rage lokacin haɗin yanar gizo na masu biyan kuɗi - a cikin A-Netz wannan tsari ya ɗauki kusan mintuna biyu! Bugu da kari, adadin masu amfani da shi ya kusan ninka sau uku. Ko da a lokacin, iyakance yawo zuwa Austria, Netherlands da Luxembourg sun bayyana. Amma sabuwar hanyar sadarwa har yanzu ba ta iya kawar da wasu daga cikin "kullun" na magabata. Don haka, alal misali, mai kira dole ne ya san wurin da mai yiwuwa ya shiga. Don haka, an raba dukkan yankin Jamus zuwa yankuna 150 (kwayoyin halitta), kowannensu ya kai kilomita 15 a diamita.Don isa ga mai biyan kuɗi wanda yake, a ce, a yankin Hannover, an fara buga lambar yanki (0511), sannan lambobi "0" da "5" (lambar sadarwar wayar hannu), sannan kuma lambar wayar hannu kanta. Idan ɗaya daga cikin masu biyan kuɗi yayin zance ya yi tafiya a wajen cell ɗinsa, an yanke tattaunawar kuma dole ne ku buga lamba tare da sabon lamba. Wani “kumburi” shi ne gaskiyar cewa har yanzu ana yin watsa muryar ta hanyar analog kuma kusan a bayyane. Rufewa yana yiwuwa tare da kayan aiki na musamman da tsada sosai. An yi amfani da shi a lokuta da ba kasafai ba, misali, ta 'yan siyasa ko ayyuka na musamman.

Farashin saitin tarho a cikin sabuwar hanyar sadarwa sun yi daidai da na saitin A-Netz. A cikin 1972, sabuwar “akwati” mai wayar hannu da dialer ta kai kimanin 12,000 DM. Amma ga waɗanda suka sami damar biyan kuɗin biyan kuɗi na 270 DM (kuma hakan ba tare da biyan kuɗi na minti ɗaya na kiran da kansu ba), wannan adadin ba wani babban cikas ba ne.

B-Netz. Motar ta yi kama da zamani, kuma wayar tana da faifan maɓalli

TE-KA-DE BSA33. Akwatin akwatin har yanzu yana cikin akwati, wayar hannu tana tsakanin kujerun, an gina dialer a cikin dashboard

B-Netz. Kyawawan jin dadi

A cikin 1986, hanyar sadarwar ta kai iyakar masu biyan kuɗi 27,000. An hango wannan tun da wuri, don haka a cikin watan Agustan 1985 an ƙaddamar da wata hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a cikin lokacin gwaji, wanda, ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba, kawai ana kiransa "C-Netz".

C-Netz

Oda don haɓakawa da aiwatar da sabuwar hanyar sadarwar wayar tafi da gidanka ga sabon shiga cikin wannan kasuwancin - damuwar Siemens. Me yasa, duk da shekaru talatin na gwaninta na aikin haɗin gwiwa, tsohon abokin tarayya, TeKaDe, an ƙetare shi, yanzu, mai yiwuwa, babu wanda ya sani. C-Netz ya zama cibiyar sadarwa ta analog ta uku kuma ta ƙarshe. An tura shi a cikin Jamus, Portugal da Afirka ta Kudu kawai, wanda ya hana yawo na duniya kuma, a ƙarshe, ya zama abin ƙarfafa don ƙirƙirar hanyoyin sadarwa na ƙarni na biyu. Amma gaskiyar magana ta kasance cewa Siemens ya haɓaka kuma ya ƙaddamar da shi a watan Mayu 1986 zuwa kasuwancin kasuwanci mafi zamani kuma mafi aminci na hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a lokacinsa.

Idan aka kwatanta da magabata, C-Netz ya sami nasara mai ban mamaki, wanda ya fito daga abubuwa da yawa. Don haka, alal misali, ya ba da kusan cikakkiyar ɗaukar hoto na ƙasar Jamus. An cimma wannan ta hanyar gina nau'ikan sel guda biyu: ƙanana da babba. abin da ake kira. manyan sel masu radiyo na kilomita 15 zuwa 20 sun rufe manyan yankuna: fili mai faɗi, ƙarancin yawan jama'a. Ƙananan sel, waɗanda ke da radius na kilomita 2-3 kawai, sun ba da ɗaukar hoto don ƙarin wuraren birane, da kuma wuraren da ke da ƙasa mai rikitarwa. A lokacin ƙaddamar da shi, hanyar sadarwar ta ƙunshi jimillar sel manya da ƙanana 175. A cikin shekaru uku yana da masu biyan kuɗi sama da 98,000 a Jamus da sama da masu biyan kuɗi 2,000 a Yammacin Berlin. Tun kafin tsakiyar shekarun 1990, C-Netz ya kasance ba makawa a zahiri a yankunan karkara da bakin teku na Arewa da Tekun Baltic a arewacin Jamus. Bugu da kari, cibiyar sadarwa ta dade da zama daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa a jiragen kamun kifi a bakin teku.

Muhimmin ma'auni wanda ya ba wa C-Netz damar samun farin jini cikin sauri shine gabatarwar abin da ake kira. katunan masu amfani. Daga nan ne kafafun katunan SIM na zamani suke girma! Katin mai amfani ya canza ID na hardware. Kafin wannan, mai shiga ba ya rabuwa da motarsa, amma yanzu ya samu damar yin amfani da wayoyi da yawa masu karamin kati daya kacal tare da igiyar maganadisu da ke shiga cikin jaka.

Wannan shine yadda babbar-kakar-kakar-kakar SIM ta yi kama, girman katin kiredit

Har yanzu kwafi na farko sun yi amfani da tsiri na maganadisu, amma a cikin 1988 an fitar da katunan matasan farko tare da haɗaɗɗen microcontroller ( guntu )

Duk ɓangarorin SIM ɗin hybrid tare da ɗigon maganadisu da guntu

Ga shi - katin SIM na gaske

Sabuwar sigar katin SIM na "C-Tel" (kamar yadda ake kiran C-Netz yanzu). Mini-SIM a bayyane yake. Na gaba, ƙarni na biyu na cibiyoyin sadarwa da farko sun yi amfani da wannan ma'auni

Daga ma'auni na farko - SIM-card, wanda ya ba da damar kawar da ɗaurin mai biyan kuɗi zuwa na'urar - na biyu, watakila mafi mahimmanci, ya biyo baya: masu biyan kuɗi a ƙarshe sun zama abin isa. Kuma ko da wane yanki ne kasar suka kasance. Kowane mai katin biyan kuɗi yana da lambar wayarsa ta sirri tare da lambar shiga guda ɗaya da aka keɓe don wayoyin hannu (0161). Bukatar dogon bincike na mai biyan kuɗin da ake so ya ɓace. A ƙarshe, sadarwa ta zama wayar hannu ta gaske. Wannan ma'auni ne, a cewar masana, ya ba da kwarin guiwa ga masana'antar sadarwa ta wayar hannu da kuma ba ta damar shiga kasuwar hada-hadar jama'a.

Kuma wannan shine yadda wayoyin hannu na farko suka yi kama. Model "BOSCH Handy C9". Tuni a cikin launuka biyu: launin toka da anthracite. Tun daga wannan lokacin, kalmar "Handy" ta zama sunan gama gari a cikin Jamusanci, da kyau, wani abu kamar "kwafi" a cikin Rashanci

Kuma, a ƙarshe, siffa ta uku mai kisa ita ce abin da ake kira. "handover" - canja wurin zama na masu biyan kuɗi daga wannan tashar tushe zuwa wani. Haka kuma, an aiwatar da tsarin wannan canja wuri da inganci wanda har yanzu C-Netz ya kasance ba a iya samunsa a cikin wannan siga. Ko da a cikin sauri sosai, misali, lokacin tafiya a cikin jirgin kasa na ICE express jiragen kasa (ƙarni na uku wanda nau'in nau'in Sapsan ne), kusan babu gibi.

An shigar da wayoyin tarho na katin guda dubu daidai a cikin jiragen kasa na misalin Jamusanci na Railways na Rasha - Deutsche Bahn: 400 a cikin jiragen kasa na ICE da kuma wani 600 a cikin abin da ake kira. InterRegio da InterCity sun kasance jiragen kasa masu sauri masu nisa waɗanda akai-akai ke tafiya tsakanin manyan biranen fasaha, kuɗi da siyasa kamar su Frankfurt, Munich, Hamburg, Hannover da Berlin. Wannan nau'in sadarwar wayar hannu, mara tsada, dacewa kuma abin dogaro sosai, ya shahara sosai, kuma ba lallai ba ne a tsakanin fasinjojin aji na farko masu tsada kawai. Bayan haka, a Jamus, tare da ingantaccen tsarin hanyar sadarwa na jiragen kasa masu sauri, ba kawai 'yan kasuwa da 'yan siyasa ba ne kawai suke amfani da jiragen kasa (musamman a lokacin yakin neman zabe), har ma da talakawan da sukan yi aiki dubun ko ma daruruwan kilomita daga gida.

Wannan shi ne abin da katunan biyan kuɗi a cikin jiragen ƙasa na Deutsche Bahn suka yi kama a cikin 90s

Duk wanda ke da katin waya zai iya amfani da wayar tarho a cikin jiragen kasa. Kuna iya siyan shi a kowane kiosk tasha a duk faɗin ƙasar, kuma, ba shakka, daga mai gudanar da kan jirgin. An yi amfani da katunan, a cikin ƙungiyoyin 6 DM da 12 DM.

Bagaren katin kira don amfani a cikin wayoyin biyan kuɗi na Deutsche Bahn, kamar yadda tambarin Deutsche Bahn da tambarin "C" suka tabbatar a cikin tambarin Telekom

Da farko, an tsara C-Netz don masu biyan kuɗi 100,000, amma an kai wannan iyaka a ƙarshen 1988. Ƙarfin ya fara ƙaruwa da sauri, wanda ya sa ya yiwu a ƙara yawan abubuwan da ke cikin hanyar sadarwa. A cikin 1993, shekaru biyu bayan ƙaddamar da magajinsa, adadin masu biyan kuɗi na C-Netz ko C-Tel (cibiyar sadarwar ta sami sabon suna a 1996) ya kai 800,000. Yayin da adadin masu biyan kuɗin sadarwar ke ƙaruwa cikin sauri, farashin amfani da shi kuma yana faɗuwa cikin sauri. Matsakaicin kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata na 120 DM a lokacin ƙaddamar da hanyar sadarwar ya faɗi zuwa 19 DM a bara.

C-Tel an fara shirin wanzuwa har sai aƙalla 2008. Amma a cikin 2001, DeTeMobil, wanda shine sunan tsohon reshen Deutsche Post a wancan lokacin, daga baya aka sake masa suna T-Mobile, zai fito fili. Dangane da wannan bangon, cibiyar sadarwar wayar hannu ta analog ta yi kama da ba a iya bayyanawa kuma tana iya tsoratar da masu hannun jari. Saboda haka, an yanke shawarar jawo sauran abokan ciniki zuwa sabon hanyar sadarwa na D1 (Zan yi magana game da shi a cikin labarin na gaba), kuma a kashe C-Tel kanta, wanda har yanzu yana da aminci kuma yana da nisa daga rashin riba. Wannan ya faru daidai a ƙarshen ƙarni na 20, a ranar 30 ga Disamba, 2000. Wani abin da ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin makomar sabuwar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta analog ita ce, ba ta goyan bayan irin waɗannan abubuwa masu fa'ida ga ma'aikaci kamar gajeriyar lambobi, waɗanda ke bayyana a cikin cibiyoyin sadarwa na gaba.

Kamfanin sadarwa na Jamus ya shiga cikin karni na 21, inda ya yi nasarar barin ƙarni na farko na hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu a cikin 20th da suka gabata. A wancan lokacin, cibiyoyin sadarwa na zamani na zamani na biyu sun riga sun wanzu a cikin ƙasar lokaci ɗaya. Zan ba da labari mai ban sha'awa na asalinsu da samuwarsu a kashi na biyu na labarina.

Tarihin sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus: jiya da yau

Kamar yadda kuka sani, sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta bayyana a Rasha a farkon shekarun 90s. Shin ko kun san cewa, alal misali, a Jamus a wancan lokacin an sami sauyi cikin sauƙi daga cibiyar sadarwa ta ƙasa ta uku zuwa ta huɗu, kuma cibiyoyin sadarwa guda uku na farko analog ne? Cewa wayoyin hannu na farko ba su kai girman bulo ba, sai dai girman akwati? Shin kun san inda aka haɓaka manufar katin SIM azaman mai gano masu biyan kuɗi na musamman kuma aka fara amfani da shi? Ba? To, sai ku kasance tare da mu, za a sami abubuwa masu ban sha'awa da yawa a cikin wannan rubutu.

Kashi na ɗaya: Analog Networks

A-Netz

Tarihi na ci gaban sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus (kuma muna la'akari da Jamus kawai) ya zama sananne ga yawancin ƙasashen yamma. Ya fara a 1958. Deutsche Bundespost – a lokacin ne ma’aikatar ta Jamus ke da rinjaye a kan ƙirƙira, bunƙasa da kuma gudanar da dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa a Jamus. A karkashinta, tarwatsa hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu na gida da suka wanzu har zuwa lokacin sun hade su zuwa wani abin da ake kira. "Cibiyar sadarwar rediyo ta wayar hannu ta jama'a", wacce aka fi sani da "Autotelefon-Netz" ko kuma a sauƙaƙe "A-Netz". Don haka, a ƙarshen 50s, an ƙirƙiri babbar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a duniya. A cikin shekaru 10, ya rufe kusan kashi 80% na ƙasar Jamus.Ya kasance mai shimfiɗa don kiran irin wannan wayar da gaske "wayar hannu": dodanni na wancan lokacin sun kai kilogiram 16 kuma sun kasance, a matsayin mai mulkin, an gina su a cikin mota. Amma, duk da haka, a karon farko, masu biyan kuɗi suna da damar da za su gudanar da tattaunawa ta wayar tarho, suna barin harabar ko rumfar tarho. Jin daɗi, ba shakka, ba shine mafi arha ba don haka ba ga kowa ba. Bayan haka, farashin irin wannan na'urar ya kasance kusan 15,000 DM. Don kwatanta: "Volkswagen Beetle", mafi yawan akwati wanda aka shagaltar da na'urar kanta, sa'an nan kudin 5000 DM. Amma waɗannan 5000 DM ya kamata kuma a ɗauke su azaman ƙarin farashi don sadarwar wayar hannu. Gaskiyar ita ce, matsalar rayuwar baturi, wanda ya saba da yawancin masu wayoyin zamani, ya wanzu har ma a lokacin. Na'urorin sun kasance masu cin abinci sosai har tattaunawar tarho daga motar an yi su ne kawai da https://cars45.co.ke / listing/mazda/cx-7/2015 inji. In ba haka ba, baturin motar ya zauna a nan take. A cikin mafi munin yanayi, mai amfani ya sami sake dawowa mai kyau: baturin ya mutu, kuma ba zai yiwu a kira da kiran injin mota daga kulob din motar ba, saboda baturin ya mutu.

Wannan shine yadda tsarin sadarwa ta wayar hannu ya kasance a cikin 60s.

. don haka na'urar kanta tana cikin gangar jikin limousine mai wakiltar

Akwai wasu hane-hane: alal misali, mai kiran ya san inda yuwuwar mai magana da shi yake. Kowane kilomita 50, masu biyan kuɗi a cikin "cell" suna da lambar tasu, kamar ta birni a yau. Idan mai biyan kuɗi ya bar iyakar tantanin halitta, haɗin ya katse kuma dole ne a sake kiran "matar" - eh, babu PBX sannan ko da a gani. Ma'aikatan tarho 600 ne suka gudanar da wannan aiki. A duk tsawon lokacin wanzuwarsa, hanyar sadarwar tana da matsakaicin masu biyan kuɗi 10,784. Tuni shekaru goma bayan ƙaddamar da shi, ba tare da bege ba ya yi yawa. Babban haɓakar kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata daga 65 DM zuwa 270 DM, wanda aka yi a cikin 1971, bai taimaka sosai ba. Ya bayyana a fili cewa A-Netz ba zai iya jure yawan kwararar masu neman ba. An yanke shawarar ci gaba da haɓaka hanyar sadarwa ta wayar tafi-da-gidanka ta gaba, mafi kyawun zamani, tare da la'akari da gogewar da aka tara a wancan lokacin. A-Netz ya tafi layi a cikin 1977, yana wanzuwa aƙalla shekaru goma sha tara. Tun shekaru biyar da suka wuce, ta riga ta yi takara da magajiya.

TeKaDe wayar hannu, samfurin B 72 (1961-1967)

Masu kera na'urori don masu amfani da ƙarshen sun kasance duka Becker, Bosch, Philips da Siemens, waɗanda suka rayu har zuwa yau, da kuma sanannen Telefunken, waɗanda suka riga sun mutu a Bose ko kuma masu fafatawa sun haɗiye su, haka kuma. TeKaDe, Lorenz da SEL. Af, a cikin dakunan gwaje-gwaje na Telefunken da ke Hannover ne aka samar da tsarin talabijin na PAL analog mai launi a cikin 1963, wanda daga baya ya yadu a kusan dukkanin Yammacin Turai, amma wannan wani labari ne.

Eh, na kusan manta - wata hujja mai ban sha'awa: tun farkon kasuwancin A-Netz, masu biyan kuɗi na iya amfani da hanyar sadarwar ba kawai don sadarwar sauti ba, har ma don aika fax! Gaskiya ne, don wannan, ya zama dole don siyan mai canzawa na musamman tare da na'urar daidaitawa ta musamman ban da akwati-wayar kuma, a zahiri, mafi girman abin da aka makala tare da sunan girman kai "Siemens Hellfax KF108". Saboda haka, ainihin kalmar "motsi" dangane da duk wannan kayan aiki ya zama dan kadan bai dace ba: 42 kilogiram na nauyi da girma na akwatunan giya hudu (kuma a cikin Jamus tsawon ƙarni, naúrar ƙarar ita ce, kun zato shi, akwatin giya kawai) kamar an yi ishara. Tabbas, wannan gaskiyar ta iyakance da'irar masu amfani da wannan mu'ujiza ta aikin injiniya - galibi irin waɗannan nau'ikan wayoyin hannu sun kasance wani wuri a cikin tirela na kwantena, ko a cikin ɗakunan talbijin na hannu.

Fax ta wayar hannu, samfurin Siemens Helfax KF108. Gudun watsawa na shafi ɗaya a cikin tsarin A5: Minti 3. An riga an samo shi cikin launuka biyu: baki mai ra'ayin mazan jiya da fari na hipster

B-Netz

Mataki na gaba na ci gaba shine abin da ake kira. "B-Netz" ko "Network B". Kamar wanda ya gabace ta, kamfanin TeKaDe na Jamus ne ya haɓaka shi kuma ya sanya shi aiki. An gudanar da gwaji a cikin bazara na 1971 a Hannover Industrial Fair (Hannover Messe). A shekara daga baya, cibiyar sadarwa da aka canjawa wuri zuwa kasuwanci yanayin, wanda dade fiye da shekaru ashirin, har zuwa Maris 1995. Akwai abubuwa masu kyau da yawa. Abu na farko da ya kama idon ku ko, idan kuna so, a cikin kunnuwanku: matasa masu amfani da wayar tarho sun ɓace - ya zama mai yiwuwa a kafa hanyar sadarwa tare da masu biyan kuɗi na wayar hannu da masu biyan kuɗi a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar birane. Wannan yana ba da izinin rage lokacin haɗin yanar gizo na masu biyan kuɗi - a cikin A-Netz wannan tsari ya ɗauki kusan mintuna biyu! Bugu da kari, adadin masu amfani da shi ya kusan ninka sau uku. Ko da a lokacin, iyakance yawo zuwa Austria, Netherlands da Luxembourg sun bayyana. Amma sabuwar hanyar sadarwa har yanzu ba ta iya kawar da wasu daga cikin "kullun" na magabata. Don haka, alal misali, mai kira dole ne ya san wurin da mai yiwuwa ya shiga. Don haka, an raba dukkan yankin Jamus zuwa yankuna 150 (kwayoyin halitta), kowannensu ya kai kilomita 15 a diamita.Don isa ga mai biyan kuɗi wanda yake, a ce, a yankin Hannover, an fara buga lambar yanki (0511), sannan lambobi "0" da "5" (lambar sadarwar wayar hannu), sannan kuma lambar wayar hannu kanta. Idan ɗaya daga cikin masu biyan kuɗi yayin zance ya yi tafiya a wajen cell ɗinsa, an yanke tattaunawar kuma dole ne ku buga lamba tare da sabon lamba. Wani “kumburi” shi ne gaskiyar cewa har yanzu ana yin watsa muryar ta hanyar analog kuma kusan a bayyane. Rufewa yana yiwuwa tare da kayan aiki na musamman da tsada sosai. An yi amfani da shi a lokuta da ba kasafai ba, misali, ta 'yan siyasa ko ayyuka na musamman.

Farashin saitin tarho a cikin sabuwar hanyar sadarwa sun yi daidai da na saitin A-Netz. A cikin 1972, sabuwar “akwati” mai wayar hannu da dialer ta kai kimanin 12,000 DM. Amma ga waɗanda suka sami damar biyan kuɗin biyan kuɗi na 270 DM (kuma wannan ba tare da biyan kuɗi a minti ɗaya ba don kiran kansu), wannan adadin bai kasance babban cikas ba.

B-Netz. Motar ta yi kama da zamani, kuma wayar tana da faifan maɓalli

TE-KA-DE BSA33. Akwatin akwatin har yanzu yana cikin akwati, wayar hannu tana tsakanin kujerun, an gina dialer a cikin dashboard

B-Netz. Kyawawan jin dadi

A cikin 1986, hanyar sadarwar ta kai iyakar masu biyan kuɗi 27,000. An yi hasashen hakan tun da farko, saboda haka, a cikin watan Agustan 1985, an ƙaddamar da wata hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu zuwa lokacin gwaji, wanda, ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba, kawai ana kiransa "C-Netz".

C-Netz

Oda don haɓakawa da aiwatar da sabuwar hanyar sadarwar wayar tafi da gidanka ga sabon shiga cikin wannan kasuwancin - damuwar Siemens. Me yasa, duk da shekaru talatin na gwaninta na aikin haɗin gwiwa, tsohon abokin tarayya, kamfanin TeKaDe, an ƙetare shi, yanzu, mai yiwuwa, babu wanda ya sani. C-Netz ya zama cibiyar sadarwa ta analog ta uku kuma ta ƙarshe. An tura shi a cikin Jamus, Portugal da Afirka ta Kudu kawai, wanda ya hana yawo na duniya kuma, a ƙarshe, ya zama abin ƙarfafa don ƙirƙirar hanyoyin sadarwa na ƙarni na biyu. Amma gaskiyar magana ta kasance cewa Siemens ya haɓaka kuma ya ƙaddamar da shi a watan Mayu 1986 zuwa kasuwancin kasuwanci mafi zamani kuma mafi aminci na hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a lokacinsa.

Idan aka kwatanta da magabata, C-Netz ya sami nasara mai ban mamaki, wanda ya fito daga abubuwa da yawa. Don haka, alal misali, ya ba da kusan cikakkiyar ɗaukar hoto na ƙasar Jamus. An cimma wannan ta hanyar gina nau'ikan sel guda biyu: ƙanana da babba. abin da ake kira. manyan sel masu radiyo na kilomita 15 zuwa 20 sun rufe manyan yankuna: fili mai faɗi, ƙarancin yawan jama'a. Ƙananan sel, waɗanda ke da radius na kilomita 2-3 kawai, sun ba da ɗaukar hoto don ƙarin wuraren birane, da kuma wuraren da ke da ƙasa mai rikitarwa. A lokacin ƙaddamar da shi, hanyar sadarwar ta ƙunshi jimillar sel manya da ƙanana 175. A cikin shekaru uku yana da masu biyan kuɗi sama da 98,000 a Jamus da sama da masu biyan kuɗi 2,000 a Yammacin Berlin. Tun kafin tsakiyar shekarun 1990, C-Netz ya kasance ba makawa a zahiri a yankunan karkara da bakin teku na Arewa da Tekun Baltic a arewacin Jamus. Bugu da kari, cibiyar sadarwa ta dade da zama daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa a jiragen kamun kifi a bakin teku.

Muhimmin ma'auni wanda ya ba wa C-Netz damar samun farin jini cikin sauri shine gabatarwar abin da ake kira. katunan masu amfani. Daga nan ne kafafun katunan SIM na zamani suke girma! Katin mai amfani ya canza ID na hardware. Kafin wannan, mai shiga ba ya rabuwa da motarsa, amma yanzu ya samu damar yin amfani da wayoyi da yawa masu karamin kati daya kacal tare da igiyar maganadisu da ke shiga cikin jaka.

Wannan shine yadda babbar-kakar-kakar-kakar SIM ta yi kama, girman katin kiredit

Har yanzu kwafin farko sun yi amfani da igiyar maganadisu, amma tuni a cikin 1988 aka fitar da katunan matasan farko tare da hadedde microcontroller (guntu).

Duk ɓangarorin SIM ɗin hybrid tare da ɗigon maganadisu da guntu

Ga shi - katin SIM na gaske

Sabuwar sigar katin SIM na "C-Tel" (kamar yadda ake kiran C-Netz yanzu). Mini-SIM a bayyane yake. Na gaba, ƙarni na biyu na cibiyoyin sadarwa da farko sun yi amfani da wannan ma'auni

Daga ma'auni na farko - SIM-card, wanda ya ba da damar kawar da ɗaurin mai biyan kuɗi zuwa na'urar - na biyu, watakila mafi mahimmanci, ya biyo baya: masu biyan kuɗi a ƙarshe sun zama abin isa. Kuma ko da wane yanki ne kasar suka kasance. Kowane mai katin biyan kuɗi yana da lambar wayarsa ta sirri tare da lambar shiga guda ɗaya da aka keɓe don wayoyin hannu (0161). Bukatar dogon bincike na mai biyan kuɗin da ake so ya ɓace. A ƙarshe, sadarwa ta zama wayar hannu ta gaske. Wannan ma'auni ne, a cewar masana, ya ba da kwarin guiwa ga masana'antar sadarwa ta wayar hannu da kuma ba ta damar shiga kasuwar hada-hadar jama'a.

Kuma wannan shine yadda wayoyin hannu na farko suka yi kama. Model "BOSCH Handy C9". Tuni a cikin launuka biyu: launin toka da anthracite. Tun daga wannan lokacin, kalmar "Handy" ta zama sunan gama gari a cikin Jamusanci, da kyau, wani abu kamar "kwafi" a cikin Rashanci

Kuma, a ƙarshe, siffa ta uku mai kisa ita ce abin da ake kira. "handover" - canja wurin zama na masu biyan kuɗi daga wannan tashar tushe zuwa wani. Haka kuma, an aiwatar da tsarin wannan canja wuri da inganci wanda har yanzu C-Netz ya kasance ba a iya samunsa a cikin wannan siga. Ko da a cikin sauri sosai, misali, lokacin tafiya a cikin jirgin kasa na ICE express jiragen kasa (ƙarni na uku wanda nau'in nau'in Sapsan ne), kusan babu gibi.

An shigar da wayoyin tarho na katin guda dubu daidai a cikin jiragen kasa na misalin Jamusanci na Railways na Rasha - Deutsche Bahn: 400 a cikin jiragen kasa na ICE da kuma wani 600 a cikin abin da ake kira. InterRegio da InterCity sun kasance jiragen kasa masu sauri masu nisa waɗanda akai-akai ke tafiya tsakanin manyan biranen fasaha, kuɗi da siyasa kamar su Frankfurt, Munich, Hamburg, Hannover da Berlin. Wannan nau'in sadarwar wayar hannu, mara tsada, dacewa kuma abin dogaro sosai, ya shahara sosai, kuma ba lallai ba ne a tsakanin fasinjojin aji na farko masu tsada kawai. Bayan haka, a Jamus, tare da ingantaccen tsarin hanyar sadarwa na jiragen kasa masu sauri, ba kawai 'yan kasuwa da 'yan siyasa ba ne kawai suke amfani da jiragen kasa (musamman a lokacin yakin neman zabe), har ma da talakawan da sukan yi aiki dubun ko ma daruruwan kilomita daga gida.

Wannan shi ne abin da katunan biyan kuɗi a cikin jiragen ƙasa na Deutsche Bahn suka yi kama a cikin 90s

Duk wanda ke da katin waya zai iya amfani da wayar tarho a cikin jiragen kasa. Kuna iya siyan shi a kowane kiosk tasha a duk faɗin ƙasar, kuma, ba shakka, daga mai gudanar da kan jirgin. An yi amfani da katunan, a cikin ƙungiyoyin 6 DM da 12 DM.

Bagaren katin kira don amfani a cikin wayoyin biyan kuɗi na Deutsche Bahn, kamar yadda tambarin Deutsche Bahn da tambarin "C" suka tabbatar a cikin tambarin Telekom

Da farko, an tsara C-Netz don masu biyan kuɗi 100,000, amma an kai wannan iyaka a ƙarshen 1988. Ƙarfin ya fara ƙaruwa da sauri, wanda ya sa ya yiwu a ƙara yawan abubuwan da ke cikin hanyar sadarwa. A cikin 1993, shekaru biyu bayan ƙaddamar da magajinsa, adadin masu biyan kuɗi na C-Netz ko C-Tel (cibiyar sadarwar ta sami sabon suna a 1996) ya kai 800,000. Yayin da adadin masu biyan kuɗin sadarwar ke ƙaruwa cikin sauri, farashin amfani da shi kuma yana faɗuwa cikin sauri. Matsakaicin kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata na 120 DM a lokacin ƙaddamar da hanyar sadarwar ya faɗi zuwa 19 DM a bara.

C-Tel an fara shirin wanzuwa har sai aƙalla 2008. Amma a cikin 2001, DeTeMobil, wanda shine sunan tsohon reshen Deutsche Post a wancan lokacin, daga baya aka sake masa suna T-Mobile, zai fito fili. Dangane da wannan bangon, cibiyar sadarwar wayar hannu ta analog ta yi kama da ba a iya bayyanawa kuma tana iya tsoratar da masu hannun jari. Saboda haka, an yanke shawarar jawo sauran abokan ciniki zuwa sabon hanyar sadarwa na D1 (Zan yi magana game da shi a cikin labarin na gaba), kuma a kashe C-Tel kanta, wanda har yanzu yana da aminci kuma yana da nisa daga rashin riba. Wannan ya faru daidai a ƙarshen ƙarni na 20, a ranar 30 ga Disamba, 2000. Wani abin da ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin makomar sabuwar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar salula ta analog shine cewa priori bai goyi bayan irin waɗannan abubuwa masu fa'ida ga ma'aikaci kamar gajeriyar lambobi ba, waɗanda ke fitowa a cikin cibiyoyin sadarwa na gaba.

Kamfanin sadarwa na Jamus ya shiga cikin karni na 21, inda ya yi nasarar barin ƙarni na farko na hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu a cikin 20th da suka gabata. A wancan lokacin, cibiyoyin sadarwa na zamani na zamani na biyu sun riga sun wanzu a cikin ƙasar lokaci ɗaya. Zan ba da labari mai ban sha'awa na asalinsu da samuwarsu a kashi na biyu na labarina.

Tarihin sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus: jiya da yau

Kamar yadda kuka sani, sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta bayyana a Rasha a farkon shekarun 90s. Shin ko kun san cewa, alal misali, a Jamus a wancan lokacin an sami sauyi cikin sauƙi daga cibiyar sadarwa ta ƙasa ta uku zuwa ta huɗu, kuma cibiyoyin sadarwa guda uku na farko analog ne? Cewa wayoyin hannu na farko ba su kai girman bulo ba, sai dai girman akwati? Shin kun san inda aka haɓaka manufar katin SIM azaman mai gano masu biyan kuɗi na musamman kuma aka fara amfani da shi? Ba? To, sai ku kasance tare da mu, za a sami abubuwa masu ban sha'awa da yawa a cikin wannan rubutu.

Kashi na ɗaya: Analog Networks

A-Netz

Tarihi na ci gaban sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus (kuma muna la'akari da Jamus kawai) ya zama sananne ga yawancin ƙasashen yamma. Ya fara a 1958. Deutsche Bundespost – a lokacin ne ma’aikatar ta Jamus ke da rinjaye a kan ƙirƙira, bunƙasa da kuma gudanar da dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa a Jamus. A karkashinta, tarwatsa hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu na gida da suka wanzu har zuwa lokacin sun hade su zuwa wani abin da ake kira. "Cibiyar sadarwar rediyo ta wayar hannu ta jama'a", wacce aka fi sani da "Autotelefon-Netz" ko kuma a sauƙaƙe "A-Netz". Don haka, a ƙarshen 50s, an ƙirƙiri babbar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a duniya. A cikin shekaru 10, ya rufe kusan kashi 80% na ƙasar Jamus.Ya kasance mai shimfiɗa don kiran irin wannan wayar da gaske "wayar hannu": dodanni na wancan lokacin sun kai kilogiram 16 kuma sun kasance, a matsayin mai mulkin, an gina su a cikin mota. Amma, duk da haka, a karon farko, masu biyan kuɗi suna da damar da za su gudanar da tattaunawa ta wayar tarho, suna barin harabar ko rumfar tarho. Jin daɗi, ba shakka, ba shine mafi arha ba don haka ba ga kowa ba. Bayan haka, farashin irin wannan na'urar ya kasance kusan 15,000 DM. Don kwatanta: "Volkswagen Beetle", mafi yawan akwati wanda aka shagaltar da na'urar kanta, sa'an nan kudin 5000 DM. Amma waɗannan 5000 DM ya kamata kuma a ɗauke su azaman ƙarin farashi don sadarwar wayar hannu. Gaskiyar ita ce, matsalar rayuwar baturi, wanda ya saba da yawancin masu wayoyin zamani, ya wanzu har ma a lokacin. Na'urorin sun kasance masu ban sha'awa sosai har tattaunawar tarho daga motar an yi su ne kawai tare da injin da ke aiki https://cars45.co.ke/listing/mazda/cx-7/2015. In ba haka ba, baturin motar ya zauna a nan take. A cikin mafi munin yanayi, mai amfani ya sami sake dawowa mai kyau: baturin ya mutu, kuma ba zai yiwu a kira da kiran injin mota daga kulob din motar ba, saboda baturin ya mutu.

Tarihin ci gaban sadarwar wayar hannu a Jamus (kuma muna la'akari da Jamus kawai) yana da kyau ga yawancin ƙasashen yammacin Turai. Ya fara a 1958. Deutsche Bundespost – a lokacin ne ma’aikatar ta Jamus ke da rinjaye a kan ƙirƙira, bunƙasa da kuma gudanar da dukkan hanyoyin sadarwa a Jamus. A karkashinta, tarwatsa hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu na gida da suka wanzu har zuwa lokacin sun hade su zuwa wani abin da ake kira. "Cibiyar sadarwar rediyo ta wayar hannu ta jama'a", wacce aka fi sani da "Autotelefon-Netz" ko kuma a sauƙaƙe "A-Netz". Don haka, a ƙarshen 50s, an ƙirƙiri babbar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a duniya. A cikin shekaru 10, ya rufe kusan kashi 80% na ƙasar Jamus. Ya kasance mai shimfiɗa don kiran irin wannan wayar da gaske "wayar hannu": dodanni na wancan lokacin sun kai kilogiram 16 kuma sun kasance, a matsayin mai mulkin, an gina su a cikin mota. Amma, duk da haka, a karon farko, masu biyan kuɗi suna da damar da za su gudanar da tattaunawa ta wayar tarho, suna barin harabar ko rumfar tarho. Jin daɗi, ba shakka, ba shine mafi arha ba don haka ba ga kowa ba. Bayan haka, farashin irin wannan na'urar ya kasance kusan 15,000 DM. Don kwatanta: "Volkswagen Beetle", mafi yawan akwati wanda aka shagaltar da na'urar kanta, sa'an nan kudin 5000 DM. Amma waɗannan 5000 DM ya kamata kuma a ɗauke su azaman ƙarin farashi don sadarwar wayar hannu. Gaskiyar ita ce, matsalar rayuwar baturi, wanda ya saba da yawancin masu wayoyin zamani, ya wanzu har ma a lokacin. Na'urorin sun kasance masu ban sha'awa sosai don haka tattaunawar wayar daga motar an yi su ne kawai tare da https://cars45.co.ke/listing/mazda/cx-7/2015 https://cars45.co.ke/listing/mazda/cx-7/2015 inji. In ba haka ba, baturin motar ya zauna a nan take. A cikin mafi munin yanayi, mai amfani ya sami sake dawowa mai tsabta: baturin ya mutu, kuma ba zai yiwu a kira da kira ma'aikacin mota daga motar motar ba, saboda baturin ya mutu. Wannan shine yadda tsarin sadarwa ta wayar hannu ya kasance a cikin 60s.

. don haka na'urar kanta tana cikin gangar jikin limousine mai wakiltar

Akwai wasu hane-hane: alal misali, mai kiran ya san inda yuwuwar mai magana da shi yake. Kowane kilomita 50, masu biyan kuɗi a cikin "cell" suna da lambar tasu, kamar ta birni a yau. Idan mai biyan kuɗi ya bar iyakar tantanin halitta, haɗin ya katse kuma dole ne a sake kiran "matar" - eh, babu PBX sannan ko da a gani. Ma'aikatan tarho 600 ne suka gudanar da wannan aiki. A duk tsawon lokacin wanzuwarsa, hanyar sadarwar tana da matsakaicin masu biyan kuɗi 10,784. Tuni shekaru goma bayan ƙaddamar da shi, ba tare da bege ba ya yi yawa. Babban haɓakar kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata daga 65 DM zuwa 270 DM, wanda aka yi a cikin 1971, bai taimaka sosai ba. Ya bayyana a fili cewa A-Netz ba zai iya jure yawan kwararar masu neman ba. An yanke shawarar ci gaba da haɓaka hanyar sadarwa ta wayar tafi-da-gidanka ta gaba, mafi kyawun zamani, tare da la'akari da gogewar da aka tara a wancan lokacin. A-Netz ya tafi layi a cikin 1977, yana wanzuwa aƙalla shekaru goma sha tara. Tun shekaru biyar da suka wuce, ta riga ta yi takara da magajiya.

TeKaDe wayar hannu, samfurin B 72 (1961-1967)

Masu kera na'urori don masu amfani da ƙarshen sun kasance duka Becker, Bosch, Philips da Siemens, waɗanda suka rayu har zuwa yau, da kuma sanannen Telefunken, waɗanda suka riga sun mutu a Bose ko kuma masu fafatawa sun haɗiye su, haka kuma. TeKaDe, Lorenz da SEL. Af, a cikin dakunan gwaje-gwaje na Telefunken da ke Hannover ne aka samar da tsarin talabijin na PAL analog mai launi a cikin 1963, wanda daga baya ya yadu a kusan dukkanin Yammacin Turai, amma wannan wani labari ne.

Eh, na kusan manta - wata hujja mai ban sha'awa: tun farkon kasuwancin A-Netz, masu biyan kuɗi na iya amfani da hanyar sadarwar ba kawai don sadarwar sauti ba, har ma don aika fax! Gaskiya ne, don wannan, ya zama dole don siyan mai canzawa na musamman tare da na'urar daidaitawa ta musamman ban da akwati-wayar kuma, a zahiri, mafi girman abin da aka makala tare da sunan girman kai "Siemens Hellfax KF108". Saboda haka, ainihin kalmar "motsi" dangane da duk wannan kayan aiki ya zama dan kadan bai dace ba: 42 kilogiram na nauyi da girma na akwatunan giya hudu (kuma a cikin Jamus tsawon ƙarni, naúrar ƙarar ita ce, kun zato shi, akwatin giya kawai) kamar an yi ishara. Tabbas, wannan gaskiyar ta iyakance da'irar masu amfani da wannan mu'ujiza ta aikin injiniya - galibi irin waɗannan nau'ikan wayoyin hannu sun kasance wani wuri a cikin tirela na kwantena, ko a cikin ɗakunan talbijin na hannu.

Fax ta wayar hannu, samfurin Siemens Helfax KF108. Gudun watsawa na shafi ɗaya a cikin tsarin A5: Minti 3. An riga an samo shi cikin launuka biyu: baki mai ra'ayin mazan jiya da fari na hipster

B-Netz

Mataki na gaba na ci gaba shine abin da ake kira. "B-Netz" ko "Network B". Kamar wanda ya gabace ta, kamfanin TeKaDe na Jamus ne ya haɓaka shi kuma ya sanya shi aiki. An gudanar da gwaji a cikin bazara na 1971 a Hannover Industrial Fair (Hannover Messe). A shekara daga baya, cibiyar sadarwa da aka canjawa wuri zuwa kasuwanci yanayin, wanda dade fiye da shekaru ashirin, har zuwa Maris 1995. Akwai abubuwa masu kyau da yawa. Abu na farko da ya kama idon ku ko, idan kuna so, a cikin kunnuwanku: matasa masu amfani da wayar tarho sun ɓace - ya zama mai yiwuwa a kafa hanyar sadarwa tare da masu biyan kuɗi na wayar hannu da masu biyan kuɗi a cikin hanyoyin sadarwar birane. Wannan yana ba da izinin rage lokacin haɗin yanar gizo na masu biyan kuɗi - a cikin A-Netz wannan tsari ya ɗauki kusan mintuna biyu! Bugu da kari, adadin masu amfani da shi ya kusan ninka sau uku. Ko da a lokacin, iyakance yawo zuwa Austria, Netherlands da Luxembourg sun bayyana. Amma sabuwar hanyar sadarwa har yanzu ba ta iya kawar da wasu daga cikin "kullun" na magabata. Don haka, alal misali, mai kira dole ne ya san wurin da mai yiwuwa ya shiga. Don haka, an raba dukkan yankin Jamus zuwa yankuna 150 (kwayoyin halitta), kowannensu ya kai kilomita 15 a diamita. Don isa ga mai biyan kuɗi wanda yake, a ce, a yankin Hannover, an fara buga lambar yanki (0511), sannan lambobi "0" da "5" (lambar sadarwar wayar hannu), sannan kuma lambar wayar hannu kanta.Idan ɗaya daga cikin masu biyan kuɗi yayin zance ya yi tafiya a wajen cell ɗinsa, an yanke tattaunawar kuma dole ne ku buga lamba tare da sabon lamba. Wani “kumburi” shi ne gaskiyar cewa har yanzu ana yin watsa muryar ta hanyar analog kuma kusan a bayyane. Rufewa yana yiwuwa tare da kayan aiki na musamman da tsada sosai. An yi amfani da shi a lokuta da ba kasafai ba, misali, ta 'yan siyasa ko ayyuka na musamman.

Farashin saitin tarho a cikin sabuwar hanyar sadarwa sun yi daidai da na saitin A-Netz. A cikin 1972, sabuwar “akwati” mai wayar hannu da dialer ta kai kimanin 12,000 DM. Amma ga waɗanda suka sami damar biyan kuɗin biyan kuɗi na 270 DM (kuma wannan ba tare da biyan kuɗi a minti ɗaya ba don kiran kansu), wannan adadin bai kasance babban cikas ba.

B-Netz. Motar ta yi kama da zamani, kuma wayar tana da faifan maɓalli

TE-KA-DE BSA33. Akwatin akwatin har yanzu yana cikin akwati, wayar hannu tana tsakanin kujerun, an gina dialer a cikin dashboard

B-Netz. Kyawawan jin dadi

A cikin 1986, hanyar sadarwar ta kai iyakar masu biyan kuɗi 27,000. An yi hasashen hakan tun da farko, saboda haka, a cikin watan Agustan 1985, an ƙaddamar da wata hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu zuwa lokacin gwaji, wanda, ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba, kawai ana kiransa "C-Netz".

C-Netz

Oda don haɓakawa da aiwatar da sabuwar hanyar sadarwar wayar tafi da gidanka ga sabon shiga cikin wannan kasuwancin - damuwar Siemens. Me yasa, duk da shekaru talatin na gwaninta na aikin haɗin gwiwa, tsohon abokin tarayya, kamfanin TeKaDe, an ƙetare shi, yanzu, mai yiwuwa, babu wanda ya sani. C-Netz ya zama cibiyar sadarwa ta analog ta uku kuma ta ƙarshe. An tura shi a cikin Jamus, Portugal da Afirka ta Kudu kawai, wanda ya hana yawo na duniya kuma, a ƙarshe, ya zama abin ƙarfafa don ƙirƙirar hanyoyin sadarwa na ƙarni na biyu. Amma gaskiyar magana ta kasance cewa Siemens ya haɓaka kuma ya ƙaddamar da shi a watan Mayu 1986 zuwa kasuwancin kasuwanci mafi zamani kuma mafi aminci na hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu a lokacinsa.

Idan aka kwatanta da magabata, C-Netz ya sami nasara mai ban mamaki, wanda ya fito daga abubuwa da yawa. Don haka, alal misali, ya ba da kusan cikakkiyar ɗaukar hoto na ƙasar Jamus. An cimma wannan ta hanyar gina nau'ikan sel guda biyu: ƙanana da babba. abin da ake kira. manyan sel masu radiyo na kilomita 15 zuwa 20 sun rufe manyan yankuna: fili mai faɗi, ƙarancin yawan jama'a. Ƙananan sel, waɗanda ke da radius na kilomita 2-3 kawai, sun ba da ɗaukar hoto don ƙarin wuraren birane, da kuma wuraren da ke da ƙasa mai rikitarwa. A lokacin ƙaddamar da shi, hanyar sadarwar ta ƙunshi jimillar sel manya da ƙanana 175. Bayan shekaru uku yana da masu biyan kuɗi sama da 98,000 a Jamus da sama da masu biyan kuɗi 2,000 a Yammacin Berlin. Tun kafin tsakiyar shekarun 1990, C-Netz ya kasance ba makawa a zahiri a yankunan karkara da bakin teku na Arewa da Tekun Baltic a arewacin Jamus. Bugu da kari, cibiyar sadarwa ta dade da zama daidaitattun hanyoyin sadarwa a jiragen kamun kifi a bakin teku.

Muhimmin ma'auni wanda ya ba wa C-Netz damar samun farin jini cikin sauri shine gabatarwar abin da ake kira. katunan masu amfani. Daga nan ne kafafun katunan SIM na zamani suke girma! Katin mai amfani ya canza ID na hardware. Kafin wannan, mai shiga ba ya rabuwa da motarsa, amma yanzu ya samu damar yin amfani da wayoyi da yawa masu karamin kati daya kacal tare da igiyar maganadisu da ke shiga cikin jaka.

Wannan shine yadda babbar-kakar-kakar-kakar SIM ta yi kama, girman katin kiredit

Har yanzu kwafi na farko sun yi amfani da tsiri na maganadisu, amma a cikin 1988 an fitar da katunan matasan farko tare da haɗaɗɗen microcontroller ( guntu )

Duk ɓangarorin SIM ɗin hybrid tare da ɗigon maganadisu da guntu

Ga shi - katin SIM na gaske

Sabuwar sigar katin SIM na "C-Tel" (kamar yadda ake kiran C-Netz yanzu). Mini-SIM a bayyane yake. Na gaba, ƙarni na biyu na cibiyoyin sadarwa da farko sun yi amfani da wannan ma'auni

Daga ma'auni na farko - SIM-card, wanda ya ba da damar kawar da ɗaurin mai biyan kuɗi zuwa na'urar - na biyu, watakila mafi mahimmanci, ya biyo baya: masu biyan kuɗi a ƙarshe sun zama abin isa. Kuma ko da wane yanki ne kasar suka kasance. Kowane mai katin biyan kuɗi yana da lambar wayarsa ta sirri tare da lambar shiga guda ɗaya da aka keɓe don wayoyin hannu (0161). Bukatar dogon bincike na mai biyan kuɗin da ake so ya ɓace. A ƙarshe, sadarwa ta zama wayar hannu ta gaske. Wannan ma'auni ne, a cewar masana, ya ba da kwarin guiwa ga masana'antar sadarwa ta wayar hannu da kuma ba ta damar shiga kasuwar hada-hadar jama'a.

Kuma wannan shine yadda wayoyin hannu na farko suka yi kama. Model "BOSCH Handy C9". Tuni a cikin launuka biyu: launin toka da anthracite. Tun daga wannan lokacin, kalmar "Handy" ta zama sunan gama gari a cikin Jamusanci, da kyau, wani abu kamar "kwafi" a cikin Rashanci

Kuma, a ƙarshe, siffa ta uku mai kisa ita ce abin da ake kira. "handover" - canja wurin zaman mai biyan kuɗi daga wannan tashar tushe zuwa wani. Haka kuma, an aiwatar da tsarin wannan canja wuri da inganci wanda har yanzu C-Netz ya kasance ba a iya samunsa a cikin wannan siga. Ko da a cikin sauri sosai, misali, lokacin tafiya a cikin jirgin kasa na ICE express jiragen kasa (ƙarni na uku wanda nau'in nau'in Sapsan ne), kusan babu gibi.

An shigar da wayoyin tarho na katin guda dubu daidai a cikin jiragen kasa na misalin Jamusanci na Railways na Rasha - Deutsche Bahn: 400 a cikin jiragen kasa na ICE da kuma wani 600 a cikin abin da ake kira. InterRegio da InterCity - jiragen kasa masu sauri masu nisa waɗanda ke tafiya akai-akai tsakanin manyan biranen fasaha, kuɗi da siyasa kamar Frankfurt, Munich, Hamburg, Hannover da Berlin. Wannan nau'in sadarwar wayar hannu, mara tsada, dacewa kuma abin dogaro sosai, ya shahara sosai, kuma ba lallai ba ne a tsakanin fasinjojin aji na farko masu tsada kawai. Bayan haka, a Jamus, tare da ingantaccen tsarin hanyar sadarwa na jiragen kasa masu sauri, ba kawai 'yan kasuwa da 'yan siyasa ba ne kawai suke amfani da jiragen kasa (musamman a lokacin yakin neman zabe), har ma da talakawan da sukan yi aiki dubun ko ma daruruwan kilomita daga gida.

Wannan shi ne abin da katunan biyan kuɗi a cikin jiragen ƙasa na Deutsche Bahn suka yi kama a cikin 90s

Duk wanda ke da katin waya zai iya amfani da wayar tarho a cikin jiragen kasa. Kuna iya siyan shi a kowane kiosk tasha a duk faɗin ƙasar, kuma, ba shakka, daga mai gudanar da kan jirgin. An yi amfani da katunan, a cikin ƙungiyoyin 6 DM da 12 DM.

Bagaren katin kira don amfani a cikin wayoyin biyan kuɗi na Deutsche Bahn, kamar yadda tambarin Deutsche Bahn da tambarin "C" suka tabbatar a cikin tambarin Telekom

Da farko, an tsara C-Netz don masu biyan kuɗi 100,000, amma an kai wannan iyaka a ƙarshen 1988. Ƙarfin ya fara ƙaruwa da sauri, wanda ya sa ya yiwu a ƙara yawan abubuwan da ke cikin hanyar sadarwa. A cikin 1993, shekaru biyu bayan ƙaddamar da magajinsa, adadin masu biyan kuɗi na C-Netz ko C-Tel (cibiyar sadarwar ta sami sabon suna a 1996) ya kai 800,000. Yayin da adadin masu biyan kuɗin sadarwar ke ƙaruwa cikin sauri, farashin amfani da shi kuma yana faɗuwa cikin sauri. Matsakaicin kuɗin biyan kuɗi na wata-wata na 120 DM a lokacin ƙaddamar da hanyar sadarwar ya faɗi zuwa 19 DM a bara.

C-Tel an fara shirin wanzuwa har sai aƙalla 2008. Amma a cikin 2001, DeTeMobil, wanda shine sunan tsohon reshen Deutsche Post a wancan lokacin, daga baya aka sake masa suna T-Mobile, zai fito fili. Dangane da wannan bangon, cibiyar sadarwar wayar hannu ta analog ta yi kama da ba a iya bayyanawa kuma tana iya tsoratar da masu hannun jari. Saboda haka, an yanke shawarar jawo sauran abokan ciniki zuwa sabon hanyar sadarwa na D1 (Zan yi magana game da shi a cikin labarin na gaba), kuma a kashe C-Tel kanta, wanda har yanzu yana da aminci kuma yana da nisa daga rashin riba. Wannan ya faru daidai a ƙarshen ƙarni na 20, a ranar 30 ga Disamba, 2000. Wani abin da ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin makomar sabuwar hanyar sadarwa ta wayar hannu ta analog ita ce, ba ta goyan bayan irin waɗannan abubuwa masu fa'ida ga ma'aikaci kamar gajeriyar lambobi, waɗanda ke bayyana a cikin cibiyoyin sadarwa na gaba.

Kamfanin sadarwa na Jamus ya shiga cikin karni na 21, inda ya yi nasarar barin ƙarni na farko na hanyoyin sadarwar wayar hannu a cikin 20th da suka gabata. A wancan lokacin, cibiyoyin sadarwa na zamani na zamani na biyu sun riga sun wanzu a cikin ƙasar lokaci ɗaya. Zan ba da labari mai ban sha'awa na asalinsu da samuwarsu a kashi na biyu na labarina.